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NEW SOUTH ■WALES 



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DEPARrM«^TOF MINES, j 

\!^ G]p:OLOGICAL SURVEY. ^//^'^' 



E. F. PiTTMAN, A.R.S.M., Government Geologist. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 
No. 15. 



THE TUNGSTEN-MINING 
INDUSTRY 



IN 



NEW SO'UTH WALES. 



BY 



J. E. CARNE, F.G.S., 

Assistant Govkuxmknt Gkouoqist. 



With Maps, Plates, &c. 

1911. 



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SYDNEY : W. A. GULLICK, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

1912. 
[28. 6rf.] 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/mineralresources15geol 



Platk I. 




Giint. Print,;: 

Photograph of Specimen from Fielder's Hill Quarry, sliorting Intrusions of Ore-rock (light-coloured), in Sedimentary Rock (dark-coloured). Size, 04 in. l.y 7 \u. 






Gf. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



(department of mines. 

v^EOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
E. F. PiTTMAN, A.R.S.M., Government Geologist. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 

No. 15. 



THE TUNGSTEN-MINING 
INDUSTRY 



IN 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



BY 



J. E. CARNE, F.G.S., 

Assistant Govkrxmknt Geologist. 



With Maps, Plates, &c. 

1911. 



S ^"^ 



.sUj^ 




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t49-a 






SYDNEY : W. A. GULLICK, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

1912. 

[2«. 6d.] 



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17-2- 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

Department of Mines, 

Sydney, 11th November, 1911. 

Sir, 

I have the honor to submit for publication a pamphlet on the Tungsten 

Mining Industry in New South Wales, by Mr. J. E. Came, F.G.S., Assistant 

Government Geologist. 

This work is really a third edition of Mr. Game's original publication on 
Tungsten (No. 2 of the Mineral Resources Series). It has been amplified 
and brought up to date, and now contains much information which will be 
found useful by those engaged in mining for Wolfram and Scheelite. A 
considerable amount of attention has been paid to the Torrington District or 
Mole Tableland, where Tungsten minerals are most abundant. 

I have the honor to be. 

Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

EDWARD F. PITTMAN, 

Government Geologist. 
The Hon. Alfred Edden, Esq., 
Minister for Mines. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pask. 

I. Introduction and Acknowledgments 5 

II. Tungsten: Its Properties, Metallurgy, and Uses 9 

III. Ores of Tungsten 20 

IV. Concentration of Tungsten Ores 24 

V. Genesis, and Mode of Occurrence, of Tungsten Deposits 30 

VI. Permanence of Tungsten Deposits 47 

VII. Descriptive Register of New South Wales Wolfram Mines and 

Occurences 50 

VTTa. „ „ Scheelite ,, ... 78 

VIIb. ,, ,, Cupro-Scheelite Deposits ... 88 

VIIc. „ „ Stolzite ,, ... 89 

VIII, Metalliferous Minerals Associated with Tungsten Ores 90 

VIIIa. Non-metallic „ „ 91 

IX. Statistics 94 



t49— A 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE. 
L- 

II.- 
III.- 

IV.- 

Y. - 

VI.- 

VII.- 

VIII.- 

IX.— 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 



Frontispiece — Photograph of specimen from Fielder's Hill Quarry, 

showing intrusion of Wolfram ore-rock in sedimentary rock. 
Torrington Ore Company's Battery and Concentrating Plant ... 
Rockvale Wolfram Company's Battery and Concentrating Plant (under 

construction) 
Torrington Wolfram Proprietary's Battery and Concentrating Plant 
Rockvale Wolfram Company's Hauling Plant, Carter's Section... 

Torrington Ore Company's Ore Bin, Fielder's Hill 

•Torrington Ore Company's Ore Bin, Fielder's Hill 

■Entrance to New Quarry, Hawkins' Section, Rockvale Wolfram 

Company ... 
Wolfram Ore-rock rising from under overburden of sedimentary rock 

(Permo-Carboniferous) (?) 
Mount Everard Wolfram and Bismuth Quarry 

Mount Everard Battery and Concentrating Plant (under reconstruction) 
New Hope Mines — Main Workings ... 

Main Quarry, Hawkins' Section — Rockvale Wolfram Company 
Main Quarry, West end, Hawkins' Section — Rockvale W^olfram 

Company ... 
North end of Quarry, Carter's Section, Rockvale Wolfram Company 
West face. Carter's Section, Rockvale Wolfram Company 
Quarry face, " Bismuth " Mine, Torrington Ore Company, showing 

junction of ore-rock and sedimentary rock 
Entrance to " Bismuth " inclined tunnel, Torrington Ore Company 
Fielder's Hill Quairy, North end, Torrington Ore Company 
Fielder's Hill Quarry, South end, Torrington Ore Company 
Original Outcrop of Fielder's Hill Wolfram and Bismuth Deposit 
Entrance to Quarry in ml. 70, Torrington Wolfram Proprietary 
Main face in ml. 70, Torrington Wolfram Proprietary ... 
Main Quarry, ml. 75, Torrington Wolfram Proprietary ... 
Quarry in ml. 75, Torrington Wolfram Proprietary 



TO FACF 
PAGE. 



24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 

48 

49 
60 
61 
62 
64 

65 
66 
67 

68 
69 

70 
71 

72 
74 
75 
76 
77 



TEXT FIGURES. 



Fig. 1. — Extemporised jigging plant, Gibson's Bull Frog Lode, Hillgrove 

, 2. — Intrusive contact of ore-rock and sedimentary. Fielder's Hill Quarry ... 
, 3. — Intrusive contact of ore-rock and sedimentary. Fielder's Hill Quarry ... 
, 4. — Intrusive contact of ore-rock and sedimentary, " Bismuth " Mine, 

Torrington 
, 5. — Section showing intrusive contact at entrance to Carter's cut, ml. 70, 

Torrington Wolfram Proprietary ... 
, 6. — Ideal section of probable sill-like occurrence of ore-rock in sedimentary 

rocks, Torrington 
, 7. — Cross-section of Fielder's Hill Quarry 
, 8. — Longitudinal section of Fielder's Hill Quarry 
, 9. — Plan of Wolfram Hill deposits 
, 10. — Section showing intrusive contacts in Quarry in ml. 75a, Torrington 

Wolfram Proprietary... 
, 11. — Section showing intrusive contacts in Quarry in ml. 75a, Torrington 

Wolfram Proprietary ... 

, 12. — Diagram illustrating range of Wolfram values, 1897-1911 



PAGE. 

24 
37 
38 

44 

44 

48 
72 
72 
73 



75 
98 



LIST OF MAPS. 

Map showing distribution of Tungsten ores in New South Wales 
Map of Torrington Wolfram and Bismuth Field 



TO FACE PAGE. 

... 50 
... 98 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Writer in 1898 prepared a small pamphlet (Mineral Resources, No. 2) 
dealing with tungsten in New South Wales, which was reprinted the same 
year. At that date wolfram and scheelite mining was only just beginning, 
having received a stimulus from a modest advance in values compared with 
the present. 

As this branch of mining is becoming an important adjunct to the State 
mineral industry, and an attempt is being make to work low grade deposits 
on a large scale, a third edition is deemed advisable. 

Advantage was taken of the Writer's recent examination of the associated 
stanniferous areas (Mineral Resources, No. 14), to collect data in connection 
with tungsten ores and mining, the gist of which is embodied in the 
following pages. 

In the map of the Torrington or Mole Tableland wolfram field, accompany- 
ing this work, the amended boundary of the Permo-Carboniferous inlier — 
oriiiinally surveyed by Professor T. W. E. David in 1 884-5— has been adopted 
from a recent geological survey by L. A. Cotton, B.Sc, who is engaged on a 
work dealing with the genesis of these deposits. 

Though the metal tungsten was probably reduced from its ores between 
1781 and 1783 by either (or both) Scheele or the De Elhuyar brothers* ; and 
tungsten-iron alloys produced in 1855-6t its utilization in the industrial 
arts on an extensive scale is of very recent date, prior to which its ores were 
in small demand, and of comparatively little value. 

Its gradual use as an alloy with steel for production, principally, of 
superior tool-steels (possessing the i)roperty of retaining temper at high 
speeds and temperatures) ; and also — according to common belief — in the 
manufacture of armour plate, has raised tungsten to a high place in metal 
values, ranking close to tin. 

Being such a coramercialiy new metal its literature is scanty, and distri- 
buted ; the object of the present work is to collect in handy form items of 
special interest from published reports and articles, and to give a connected 
account of the metal, its ores, mining, concentration, metallurgy and uses, 
for the benefit of those interested in the local production of tungsten ores, 
to whom the literature of the subject is not easily available. No apology is 
therefore needed for liberal quotations from previous writers. 

Touching the great diversity of opinion regarding use of tungsten in 
armour-plate, it may be that international rivalry in production of offensive 
and defensive munitions of war prevents the full facts being kno\vn. 

Commercial attention was first directed to tungsten ores in New South 
Wales in 1890. Prior to this they had a nominal quoted value of about £\2 
per ton, but there was no production. 

In 1890, Messrs. Sternberg and Deutsch, of Martinikenfelde, vid Berlin, 
made personal inquiry in the New South Wales Court at the London Mining 
Exhibition, and offered .£30 per ton for ore containing 70 per cent, of 
tungstic oxide (commonly defined as tungstic acid), delivered in Berlin. 
This intimation of rapid advance in value (announced in the State through 
the Department of Mines) caused considerable activity in prospecting for 
wolfram, the only ore then known to occur in appreciable quantities. Its 

•IR. A. Hadfield, Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, 1903, p. 27. t Hid, p. 40. 



presence had been noted chiefly in the tinfields, where it was hitherto un- 
welcome. Now the tungsten associates of the tin-ore received attention, 
but proved mostly unremunerative, owing to small dimensions of the con- 
centrated bunches or lean dissemination of more distributed particles. 

Prior to 1898 the output of tungsten ores was so slight that separate 
entries were not adopted in the statistics of the Department of Mines, a 
number of small returns being included under "sundry minerals." 

]Mr. E. F. Pittman, Government Geologist, however, has published the 
following figures for the interim :* — 





Tons. 


Value. 




Tons. 


Value. 


1891 


7 00 

'"i-.ss" 
' "s'-oo" 


£ 
70 


1896 




£ 


1892 


1897 

1898 






1S93 


14 


10-25 
15900t 


310 


1894 


1899 


3,710 


1895 


88 









Notification of increased value, however, resulted in samples being forwarded 
to the Departmental Laboratory for testing purposes from near Berridale, 
Burrowa, Bundarra, Frogmore, Mount Hope, and New England, fifteen tests 
being made. 

In 1892 twenty-two assays were made, Hillgrove scheelite being for the 
first time represented, samples from this field yielding from 38 to 71 per cent. 
of tungstic oxide. 

Mining for scheelite, however, did not begin until 1898, when 1 tonScwt., 
valued at £30, was reported to have been raised from a small bunch, which 
soon became exhausted. 

In 1899 the Hillgrove scheelite lodes attracted a good deal of attention, 74 
tons of dressed ore, valued at £2,910, being exported. | 

1900-1-2 appear to have been barren of production, owing to the extremely 
low value of the mineral, no exports from Hillgrove being recorded. 

From 1903 mining for scheelite ind wolfram has been continuous, bringing 
the total productions to the end of 1910 up to the following figures : — 
Scheelite, 1,080-75 tons, valued at ... £90,892 
Wolfram, 929-85 tons, valued at ... 88,068 



Total, 2,010 tons, valued at ... £178,960 

Hillgrove is about 3,350 feet above sea-level, and the average rainfall is 
about 40 or 41 inches per annum.§ 

It is .situated 19 miles from the nearest railway-station — Armidale — by 
road, 274 from the port of Newcastle, and 378 from Sydney by rail. 

The production of wolfram for 1911 should show a marked increase, because 
of high values, renewed activity, and increasing milling and concentrating 
capacity in the Mole Tableland, where the principal deposits are situated. 

Mole Tableland is a plateau, having an elevation of 3,600 to 3,700 feet 
above sea-level, with peaks rising to 4,000 feet. The wolfram mines are 
situated about 2.') miles from Deepwater railway station, 382 from the 



t Indudinjf 74 tons of Hcheelite from Hillgrove. 
cesN.S.W., I901,p. 301. 
§ E. C. Andrews, Min. Reuources No. 8, Kept, on the Hillgrove Gold-field, 1000, p. 13. 



• Mineral Eenourcea, N. 8. Wales, 1901, p. 303 

I E. F. I'itfman, Slin. Resources N.S.W., 1901, p^ 301. 



Port of Newcastle, and 490 from Sydney by rail. The mean summer 
temperature is probably about 65° to 68°, mean winter about 40° to 44°. 
The annual rainfall averages about 35 to 40 inches. 

The Mole Tableland or Torrington wolfram mines are favourably situated 
as regards useful timbers for all purposes. Mr. R. H. Cambage, F.L.S., has 
published notes on the flora of Torrington and the neighbourhood of the 
wolfram mines generalh".* 

" The country round Stannum and Torrington, which ranges from 
3,400 to about 4,000 feet, consists chiefly of hills composed of acid 
granite, often known as tin-granite, from its association with valuable 
tin deposits. Quartz is so abundant that the disintegration of this 
coarse granite results in the production of a soil as sandy as that derived 
from the weathering of the Triassic sandstone near Sydney and on the 
Blue Mountains. The eflfect of geological influence on the vegetation is 
very apparent on this particular area, for many Sydney species are 
thriving here, imparting to the locality much of the appeai'ance of a 
typical sandstone flora." 

From Mr. Cambage's list the following are noted as the best for building 
and mining timber : — 

Eucalyptus macrorhyncha ... (Red stringybark), 

„ eugenioides ... (White stringybark). 

,, Andrewsi ... ... (Black butt). 

The following are noted as useful for fuel, mining props, ifec. : — 

Eucalyptus capitellata ... ... (Brown string)' bark). 

,, tereticornis ... ... (Forest red gum). 

„ Stuartiana ... ... (White peppermint). 

,, Deanei ... ... (Brown gum). 

,, Bancrofti ... ... (Brittle or cabbage gum). 

Casuarina suberosa ... ... (Black oak). 

The Gulf section of the Emmaville Tinfield also furnishes a small and 
irregular output of wolfram, chiefly from small bunches and thin veins, which 
are crushed and concentrated by hand with primitive appliances. 

Pulletop, in the Wagga district, and Wilson's Downfall, on the Queensland 
Border, also supply small parcels at irregular intervals. 

Hogue's Creek, near Dundee, has recently also become a small producer, in 
consequence of the erection of a milling plant. 

Until the Mole Tableland or Torrington wolfram deposits were opened on 
a fairly large .scale, the State export of wolfram was won from small rich 
bunches (or "bungs") and thin veins, by individual miners chiefly, who 
confined their attention to these richer portions. 

Plants are now being laid down to work extensive low-grade deposits on a 
large scale by quarrying, truck-haulage, stamp and grinding mills, and labour- 
saving concentrating applicinces. 

If the market value of the metal remains fairly constant at present rates, 
the outlook of the industry is hopeful for large-scale opei'ations. 

The scheelite lodes of the Hillgrove district will also continue to supply 
their quota to the State output of tungsten ores, but the nature of the 
deposits — as thin veins and small lenses — restricts mining to comparatively 

• Proc. Linn. Society N.S. Wales, 1908, XXXIII, pp. 452-472. 



8 

limited enterprises, chiefly in the hands of working miners. The areas held 
range from ordinary claims to leases of 1 to 5 acx'es, and very rarely of 10 
and 20 acres. 

The high value of the mineral in March, 1911 — when this field was visited 
by the writer — had renewed activity ; practically little capital, save labour, 
being needed for " gouging " out and dressing the small superficial " makes " 
of mineral in the numerous veins outcropping in the granite area at Hill- 
grove. Moreover, the output, however small, can be readily converted into 
cash locally. 

The market grade for wolfram is usually computed at 70 per cent., and 72 
for scheelite ; these percentages are, however, subject to contract arrange- 
ments, and are sometimes even exceeded. In the United States returns^ 
wolfram concentrates are calculated at 60 per cent, tungstic trioxide. 

The grades of the samples of concentrates from tables, vanners, and buddies 
taken for analysis in connection with this work indicate the " first-run " 
of the concentrates and not the market grades ; where necessary, the latter 
is secured by blending, or, sometimes, by reconcentration. 

Acknowledgments. 

In the preparation of this issue of thft Mineial Resources, the Writer is, as 
usual, indebted to Mr. O. Trickett, L.S., for drafting work ; Mr. G. W. Card, 
A.R.S.M., for petrological examination and description of rock specimens ; 
Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, F.I.C., F.C.S., Mr. H. P. White, and Mr. W. A. 
Greig, for analytical work ; Mr. W. S. Dun, Palfeontologist and Librai-ian 
for editing and indexing ; and Messrs. M. Morrison, and C. Murton, field 
assistants, the first for descriptions of the Nundle and Mount Tallabung 
deposits, the latter for assistance in statistical research. 

The Writer is indebted to the Torrington Ore Company, Limited, the 
Rockvale Wolfram, and the Torrington Wolfram Companies, Limited, for 
assistance and statistical information. 

He is specially indebted to Mr. T. H. Nicholas, Manager of the Torrington 
Mines, for personal assistance, and for kindly taking photographic views 
of the property. Mr. H. P. Fletcher, Manager of the Rockvale Mines, 
Mr. G. P. Lock, of the Torrington Wolfram Mines, and Mr. A. James, 
Manager of the New Hope Mine, have also assisted and supplied views 
illustrating the mines under their control. 

Messrs. F. H. Gibson, E. McNamara, H. G. Madricks, and J. Usher, of 
Hillgrove ; Mr. H. Cornell, mill master, Torrington Wolfram Concentrating 
Plant, have also supplied information. 



II.— TUNGSTEN— ITS PROPERTIES, METALLURGY, AND USES. 

R. A. Hadfield, in a paper on " Alloys of Iron and Tungsten,"* gives a 
most interesting history of tungsten, including the origin of the name, and 
discovery of the metal. 

His conclusions as to the vexed question of discovery are given in the 
following extract : — After referring to the brothers De Elhuyar, he states : — 

"The author, therefore, cannot but think that they were really 
describing (in a paper read before the Academy des Sciences de Toulouse, 
24th March, 1784, entitled 'A Chemical Analysis of Wolfram and 
Examination of a new metal which enters into its composition ') the 
results of experimental work instituted by Scheele, and that the primary 
discovery was due to Scheele in 1781, that Bergman followed wdth 
further research work a little later, and finally the brothers De Elhuyar 
in 1783 completed the work of the more prominent Swedi-sh 
investigators.! 

"Kirwan says (in his 'Elements of Mineralogy,' 1784), that the 
constituent parts of tungsten were discovered by Bergman and Scheele 
nearly at the same time, the first publication being by Scheele in the 
Swedish Memoirs, 1781. It may be mentioned that Kirwan speaks of 
the ore, but did not appear to be aware of the discovery of the separation 
of the metal itself." 

A summary of the chief points regarding tungsten appears in Dr. Adelbert 
Rossing's Geschichte der Metalle (1901). This is specially interesting, as it 
gives the names of those who carried out research work at a still earlier date 
than Scheele and Bergman. He states : — 

" The miners at an early date had already, in their own language, 
given the name Wolfram to a black crystalline mineral, which they 
found in fairly abundant quantities in tin ore mines, probably from 
' Wolfish,' or the devouring ore, because it caused great loss in the 
working of tin ore. Later it was considered an impure tin ore, also as a 
manganese ore. Another mineral of a bright white colour also found 
with tin ore (Scheelite. — J. E.G.), was, on account of its great weight, 
named tungsten, by Cronstedt, in 1755. This material, he, in 1758, 
perceived contained no tin, but in combination with an unknown ore, 
showed a limy iron ore. Kaim's experiment in 1770, in which he 
claimed to have got a metal from this material, was proved to be 
incorrect. In 1781, Scheele discovered that tungsten, besides lime, 
contained a peculiar acid which Bergman declared was a metallic lime. 
The brothers De Elhuyar, in 1783, discovered this acid also in Wolfram, 
reduced the metal from it, and named it after this mineral Wolfram or 
tungsten mineral. Werner gave to it the name ' Scheel,' and Berzelius 
that of ' Wolframium.'" + 

T. L. Walker states the mineral which is now called wolfi'amite was 
named Lupin spuma by Agricola in the early part of the 16th century .§ 

• Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, pp. 14-79. t Ilnd. p. 24. J Ibid, p. 27. 

§ Report on the Tungsten Ores of Canada. Dept. of Mines, Canada, 1909, p. 3. 



10 

Physical Characters of Tungsten. 
Hadfield states that : — 

"As far as we know the metal tungsten, like chromium, is not 
malleable. If an absolutely pure metal could be obtained, possibly this 
statement might have to be modified, but the purest forms which the 
author has been able to obtain possess hardness, brittleness, and are not 
ductile either in the ordinary or heated condition. 

" The following table gives particulars of the physical constants of the 
metal : — 

Atomic weight ... ... ... ... 183-60 

,, volume... ... ... ... 9*53 

„ density 105-00 

Specific gravity .. . ... ... ... 19-26 

„ heat (Regnault) 0-036 

" According to Mendeleef, the melting-point of the metal is 1,500° C. 

" It may be interesting to add for compai'ison the same data regarding 
molybdenum, which is supposed to be a metal possessing similar 
properties : — 

Atomic weight ... ... ... ... 95-90 

„ volume ... ... ... ... 11-10 

Specific gravity ... ... ... ... 8-60 

„ heat 0-072 

" The metal not being obtainable in a form that can be used for 
electrical or heat conductivity experiments, its properties in these 
respects are not known, except approximately.* 

" The metal tungsten does not oxidise in either dry or wet air, but 
is easily converted into a trioxide (WO3) by heating to low redness in 
oxygen, air, or steam. The oxide is of a yellow colour, but small 
quantities of alkalies cause it to assume a green tint."t 

According to O. J. Steinhart,| the physical properties of the metal tungsten 
depend on the manner of its preparation. 

" Reduction by hydrogen at dull redness gives an amorphous steel- 
grey powder of a fine lustre. The reduction of tungstic acid by potassium 
by Wohler's method gives a more brilliant crystalline powder. By 
electrolysing molten .sodium tungstate, Zetnow obtained the metal in the 
state of a black amo)-phous powder. 

"Tungsten is difficultly fusible, its melting point having been recently 
given as 2,800 to 3,000 deg. C. It can be drilled and filed easily, and is 
not magnetic. Its density depends on the method of preparation, 
varying from 17 to 18 for the pulverised varieties. Pure tungsten 
melted in the electric furnace has a density of 18-7. Heated to 1,000 
deg. C, and compressed under a pressure of 200 kg. per sq. cm. (200 
atmospheres) gives a density as high as 18-92. Its specific heat is about 
0-034 deg, C, and increases with the temperature. Its electrical 
resistance as determined by u.se is 86 x 106=0 000086 ohms per centi- 
meter at 1 deg. C. 

" Chemical Properties. — Tungsten is attacked by fluorine at ordinary 
temperatures with intumescence, forming a volatile fluoride. Dry 
chlorine attacks it at about 300 deg. C, forming the hexachloride ; 

•Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II., 1903, p. 4.5. t Ibid., p. 34. 

X The Mineral Indubtry, 1908, XVII, pp. 832-835. 



11 

moists chlorine gas forms the red oxychloride. Bromine acts on it 
only at low redness, forming the pentabromide ; iodine attacks it only 
at a bright cherry red. Oxygen, either dry or moist, has only a feeble 
action at ordinary temperatures ; however, the metal blackens little by 
little in the air. At redness, tungsten is attacked by oxygen, forming 
tungstic acid. Melted sulphur slowly transforms tungsten into sulphide. 
Nitrogen has no action at redness ; the vapour of phosphorus attacks 
powdered tungsten at redness. In the electric furnace, carbon, boron, 
and silicon unite with tungsten to form carbides, borides, and silicides. 

" Tungsten is not sensibly attacked by water at ordinary tempera- 
tures ; it is attacked rapidly by vapour of water at redness. Hydro- 
phone and sulphuric acids attack it slowly ; nitric acid and aqua regia 
transform it into tungstic acid. Cai'bon bisulphide and hydrogen 
sulphide attack tungsten at redness, forming the bisulphide. Several 
fused oxidising agents, such as lead peroxide and potassium chlorate, 
attack the powdered metal with incandescence. Fused sodium carbonate 
and nitx-ate of potassium oxidises it rapidly, forming potassium tungstate. 
Arsenide of tungsten heated with copper out of contact with air up to 
the melting-jjoint of copper is completely decomposed, forming copper 
arsenide and metallic tungsten. Tungsten forms compounds with boron, 
carbon, silicon, and alloys with alumina, nickel, iron, manganese, 
chromium, and molybdenum. 

" The manufacture of metallic tungsten powder 96-98, as now 
employed by the steelmaker, is in the hands of about half-a-dozen 
German makers, and seems to have tirst been perfected at some of the 
Hanoverian works. In England, the Tungsten and Rare Metals 
Company (Limited) began the manufacture of metals of the following 
composition : — 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Tungsten (W) 97-02 98-63 

Silicon (Si) 0-72 0-32 

Carbon (C) 0-32 0-12 

Alumina (Al) 0-47 0-21 

Iron(Fe)... 0-61 0-59 

Magnesium (Mg) 032 0-13* 

Manganese (Mn) 0.16 

Sulphur (S) Nil 

Phosphorus (P) Nil 

Oxygen, &c. (0) 033 

10000 10000 

" Briefly, the production of the metal is carried out as follows : — The ore 
is first ground to a fine powder, and heated in a reverberatory furnace with the 
necessary quantity of sodium carbonate in order to form tungstate of soda. 
The melt, which also contains the FeO, MnO, AI2O3, Si02, and any Sn02 
present, is again crushed, leached with boiling water, pressed, and the above 
mentioned oxides left behind in the filter press in which the last operation is 
performed. If the furnacing has been carried on correctly, not a trace of 
tin need go into the solution ; in fact, tin is often recovered from the residues. 
From the sodium tungstate the yellow WO3 is thi'own down by means of 
hydrochloric acid. The tungstic acid is dried and reduced in crucibles to 
metallic tungsten, which should not contain more than 0-5 per cent, of carbon 
as sent to the steel-makers. The manufacture is a lengthy and complicated 
one, and requires careful and highly-trained chemical supervision 

♦Including calcium and oxygen. 



12 

" Without going fully into the cost of the manufacture of tungsten by the 
process outlined above, it may be taken to be between £80 and £100 per ton 
of metal made, including the manufacturer's profit. The yield is by no 
means a theoretical one, as it requires from 140 to 145 units of WO3, as 
compared with the theoretical consumption of 120 units, to produce 100 
parts of 96 to 98 per cent, tungsten. If, therefore, we take the present price 
of ore at 26s. per unit, we have the following: — (26s. x 140) + £90 = £272 
per ton. 

" Besides tungsten powder, ferrotungsten is now produced regularly in 
France by Girol and others in the electrical furnace, and for some purposes 
may be used with advantage, although it is not materially cheaper, as far as 
its tungsten contents are concerned, than tungsten powder. 

" Ferrotungsten is produced in three grades, with varying carbon contents 
as follows : — 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Tungsten 8515 7948 7180 

Iron 14-12 18-60 24-35 

Carbon 0-45 149 2-58 

Silicon 0-13 016 0-36 

Manganese 0-085 0-21 0-78 

Phosphorus 0018 0-017 0-008 

Sulphur 0-021 0016 002 

Aluminium 0001 0-07 

Copper 0-008 

"The manufacturers of tungsten steels seem to prefer the powder, as it is 
easily added to the steel and can be relied upon as to composition. The 
annual consumption in Sheffield alone is about 1,000 to 1,500 tons, practically 
all of which is used for high speed rapid cutting tool steels." 

R. A. Hadfield states that : — 

"The mineral wolfram (wolframite), which is composed of tungstate 
of iron and manganese (MnO), can be reducf'd by charcoal at a high tem- 
perature. The ore is first roasted, and after being treated by diluted 
acids it is washed by water. Such a treatment will at once eliminate 
sulphur and arsenic. After careful drying, the purified mineral is 
strongly heated in a crucible lined with charcoal, whereby the tungstic 
acid is reduced to metallic tungsten, while at the same time the produc- 
tion of a compound of carbon, iron, and manganese will take place. 
This mass is then used for alloying with steel."* 

E. J. Biermann, of Hanover, claims to have produced the first ferro- 
tungsten alloy in 1866, which contained 25 per cent, of tungsten [Ibid), but 
Ha<Jfield gives earlier references to its production. 

R. A. Hadfield states that : — 

"Spanish tungsten ore is being reduced by the Tungsten and Rare 
Metals Company, Limited, Queen's-road Station, Battersea, London. 
The ore is first crushed in ball mills, and then roasted in the presence 
of soda, with the object of producing tungstate of sodium. This sub- 
stance is leached out, and then, by the addition of an acid, the tungstic 
acid is liberated from the soda and separated out by a filter press. The 
tungstic acid is reduced wiih charcoal in crucibles. 

* Joum. Iron and 8t<>el Institute, II, 1903, p. 36. 



13 

" The Tungsten Company has kindly given the Author particulars of 
their methods, which are as follows : — 

" There are three steps in the manufacture of tungsten from wolfram. 
They consist as follows : — 

(1.) Tungstate of soda is first prepared by heating together a 
mixture of ground ore and sodium carbonate. If this opera- 
tion is carried out under proper conditions, the extraction of 
the tungsten from the ore is total. At the same time the 
presence of tin and silica in the ore necessitates precautions 
being taken to avoid rendering these soluble together with the 
sodium tungstate, so that even at this early stage the metal 
may be spoilt by unskilled furnacing. 

(2.) The sodium tungstate thus formed is dissolved in water and 
separated from the iron, alumina, manganese, tin, and silica, 
and then treated with acid to precipitate the tungstic oxide 

(WO3). 

" The tungstic oxide is then washed free from soda salts and dried. 

" In this step very considerable losses may be experienced through 
the formation of hydrated tungstic oxide, which is soluble, 
and is washed out with the waste soda salts and lost. Likewise 
any undecomposed sodium tungstate must be guarded against, 
as this gives rise to the well-known red crystals so often found 
in metallic tungsten. These are sodium compounds of tungstic 
acid." 

(3.) The dry tungstic oxide is mixed with carbonaceous materials 
and submitted to high temperature in crucibles for reduction 
to metal. This operation need involve no loss if skilfully 
performed. Wrong mixtures or bad firing will very seriously 
reduce the yield of metal. 

" A well-fired crucible, when opened, should be uniform throughout, 
with the exception of a thin layer of ' tops,' or undecomposed tungstic 
oxide and carbon on the surface, which can easily be removed before 
emptying the crucible. 

" Freedom from injurious impurities depends mainly upon the skill 
exercised in the first two operations, while the percentage of tungsten in 
the finished product naturally depends largely upon the third step."* 

Dr. Adolf Gurlt states that : — 

"Wolfram steel was made as early as 1855 by Dr. F. Koeller, at 
Reich ramming, in Austria, and a few years later was imitated by 
Mushett who introduced it by the name of ' Mushet's Special Steel ' to 
the general public. Professor Heeren, of Hanover, as well as Professor 
L. Gruner, of Paris, investigated its remarkable properties, and found 
when forged red-hot and cooled slowly it possesses an extraordinary 
degree of hardness, which, however, gives way to softness when plunged 
red-hot into cold water, quite contrary to most other species of steel."J 



• Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, No. II, 1903, pp. 3«-39. 
t He obtained his first patent for tungsten steel in 1857, according to O. J. Steinhardt. 
Industry, XVII, 1908, p. 833.— J.E.C. 
t Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Engineers, XXII, Pt. I, 1894, p. 237. 



14 



HadfieW states that : — 

" As is well known, tungsten has been used for many years in the 
manufacture of self-hardening steel, that is, steel which could be 
rendered hard enough to keep a cutting edge by means of treatment 
and without subsequent water quenching. If such steel was dipped in 
water whilst red-hot it would split or crack. The tungsten percentage 
in such steel has usually been between 5 and 8 per cent., carbon 1*50 
to 2-30 per cent. The following are analyses of such steel, the first 
two on the list beinfj of the well-known Mushet steel : — 



C&rbon. 


Silicon. 


Sulphur. 


Phosphorus. 


Manganese. 


Tungsten. 


2-30 


lO.j 






2-57 


612 


2-00 


1-60 


02 


04 


1-72 


8-22 


2 05 


0-79 


0-04 


04 


2-30 


8-04 


1-67 


0-33 






2-53 


5-74 


2 35 


015 






3-38 


11-02 



" Purther improvements by Auaerican works in such steel have been 
made by increasing the tungsten to very high percentages, 15 to 20 per 
cent., and also adding chromium, and, singular to say, such steel shows 
a remarkably small percentage of carbon for tool steel, viz., about 0"70 
per cent." * 

Hardening by Quenching. — The same authority refers to Osmond having 
found — 

" That by a gradual increase of the temperature a point occurred 
where the steel was hardened by quenching, although when heated to a 
lower tempei'ature, and quenched at the same temperature, no harden- 
ing action occurred. In other words the same steel heated to 830° and 
quenched at 630° remained unhardened, but when taken first to 1310° 
and quenched at even a lower temperature, viz., 555°, it was very 
hard. As Mr. Osmond remarks, it is thus seen that in quenching this 
steel at about 600° there can be obtained a metal very hard, quite soft, 
or of medium hardness, according to the temperature of the first 
heating." . 

" This special ' quick speed ' steel requires much care in forging, as 
owing to the high percentage of carbon present it is naturally easily 
overheated and burned ; hence the later types of tungsten steel known as 
' quick speed ' cutting steel contain much lower percentages of carbon, 
but nearly twice the amount of tungsten as compared with the older 
types of self-hardening steel. Other elements, such as chromium, are 
also added in comparatively small quantities, and these combinations 
offer a steel the temper of which cannot be easily drawn even when 
approaching almost that of low red heat."t 

r. H. Hess .states that : — 

" When lathe tools are made from tungsten steel, the lathes may be 
speeded up until the chips leaving the tool are so hot that they turn blue. 
It is said that about five times as much work can be done by a lathe 
built for such speeds and work and fitted with tungsten-steel tools as can 
be done by the same lathe with carbon-steel tools. Sixteen to 20 per cent, 
tungsten is ordinarily used in lathe tools."J 

• Joum. Iron and Steel Institute, 11, 1903, pp. 66, 67. t Ibid., pp. 68, 60. 

t Min. Resources U. States, U. S. Oeol. Survey, 1908, page 730. 



15 

J. M. G-ledhill* states that a number of expei'iments were made with the 
tungsten content of high-speed steels : — 

"Ranging from 90 per cent, to 27*0 per cent. From 90 per cent, to 
16*0 per cent, the nature of the steel becomes very brittle, but at the 
same time the cutting efficiency is greatly increased, and about 16"0 per 
cent, appeared to be about the limit, as no better results were obtained 
by increasing the tungsten beyond this figure. Between 18-0 per cent. 
and 27 "0 per cent, it was found that the nature of the steel altered 
somewhat, and instead of being brittle, it became softer and tougher, 
and whilst such tools have the property of cutting cleanly, they do not 
stand up so well. 

" It was found that the presence of 0-5 per cent, to 3-0 per cent, of 
molybdenum in a high tungsten steel slightly increased the cutting effi- 
ciency, but the advantage gained is altogether out of proportion to 
the cost of the added molybdenum 

" An analysis of one of the best qualities of rapid steels produced by 
the Author's firm is as follows : — 

Per cent. 

Carbon 0'55 

Chromium 3 "5 

Tungsten 13-5 

R. A. Hadfield, referring to Professor V. Leepin's (St. Petersburg) tests 
on the mechanical properties of tungsten and molybdenum steel, both made 
in a Siemens regenerative furnace, states that : — 

" The molybdenum steel was found to be softer than the tungsten 
steel. Oil tempering and high heating after hardening increased the 
limit of elasticity in the steel. Oil tempering had a greater influence on 
the tungsten steel than on the molybdenum steel, but the latter was 
stronger after heating and water-hardening. Tungsten steel was more 
apt to split when worked, and broke socmer when bent cold. Its general 
properties were similar, but molybdenum steel stood forging and 
hardening better. The steel was made at the Putilof Ironworks, and 
the results were published in the Russian Mining Journal, 1897. ")t 

C. A. Edwards refers to — 

" A steel containing carbon 0'68 per cent., chromium 3*01 per cent., 
tungsten 19-37 per cent., and silicon 0*04 per cent., as the hardest 
steel, so far as he was aware, that had been recorded. "| 

Frank L. Hess§ states, in reference to the •' widespread belief, based upon 
frequently published statements, that most of the tungsten mined went into 
armor-plate, and it was supposed that there was no cessation in the use of 
such steel by the United States and other governments. The Writer has 
been informed by the Ordnance Bureau of the Navy Department that 
tungsten is not now, and, so far as known to that Bureau, never has been, 
used in the manufacture of armor-plate in this country, and it is not known 
to have been so used in other countries, though it has probably been used in 
experimental armor-plates. One of the greatest essentials of armor-plate is 
its ability to resist shock, and this property is not imparted to steel by 
tungsten. Most armor- plate depends for its shock-resisting properties uporr 
the addition of nickel and chromium to the steel from which it is made, and 
upon special treatment." 

* Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, 1904, II, p. 131. t Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, pp. i'S, 44. 
J Iron and Steel Institute, Vol. 21, 1908, p. 723. i Mineral Resources U. States, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, 
I, p. 721. 



16 

In support of this statement, the composition of steel employed in the 
Krupp process of armour-plate manufacture carried out at the Terni Steel- 
works may be quoted after U. F. Gregoretti* : — 

Per cent. 

Carbon 0-31 

Silicon 0*02 

Sulphur , 0-02 

Phosphorus 01 

Manganese 0"30 

Nickel 3-90 

Chromium 1 '78 

From the same Journal,! an earlier statement of composition is here 
given : — "Armour-plate, as now made, is a metal which, while varying slightly 
at different works, has an average composition closely approximating to the 
following : — 

Per cent. 

Carbon 030 

Manganese , 035 

Nickel 2-50 

Chromium 0*60 

The superiority of nickel-chrome-steel over tungsten steel is emphasised by 
Colonel L. Cubillo (Trubia, Spain) in a discussion of Hadfield's paper on 
"Alloys of Iron and Tungsten "| : — 

" From the point of view of the Ordnance Branch, it did not appear, 
however, that alloys of iron and tungsten could present the same degree 
of interest as those of iron and chromium and of iron and nickel. With 
the latter especially, tungsten alloys could not compare in importance 
where the manufacture of large guns was concerned, nor could it com- 
pare with either of the latter in the case of projectiles and armoured 
plate. The iron-nickel alloy appeared now to have been currently 
adopted in the construction of field artillery and for quick-firing guns 
up to a calibre of 5 to 6 inches. Its high elastic limit rendered it very 
suitable for this purpose, notwithstanding the difficulties which had to 
be contended with in forging the tubes and hoops, as had been observed 
in the arsenal of Trubia, in the process of manufacturing field guns. 
The advantages of the nickel alloy were, however, so great that they 
fully repaid any difficulties encountered in the forging and in the 
subsequent mechanical working." 

Hadfield states that : — 

" The presence of tungsten in an iron alloy, like manganese, chromium, 
silicon, aluminium, and nickel, greatly hinders or prohibits the welding 
together of .specimens. "§ 

He also draws attention to the fact that, " Unlike either iron-manganese 
or iron-nickel alloys, there is apparently no point where the maximum brittle- 
ness Is reached and afterwards a return to toughness. In the two former 
steels there is a zone of brittleness, and, with further higher additions, a 
return to toughness 

" Iron-tungsten alloys, therefore, do not appear to show the peculiar 
exception found in nickel and manganese steels. They conform to the general 
rule that increasing quantities of an element added to an alloy already brittle 
do not restore the toughness."|| 

• Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, 1910, II, p. 498. t 1907, I, p. 516. t Journ. Iron and Steel 

Inrtitute, II, 19(J3, p. 94. g Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, p, 02. || Journ. Iron and Steel 

Institute, II, 1903, p. 51. 



C. Baskerville, on the other hand, mentions armour plate as one of the 
uses to which tungsten is put as an alloy with steel, either by itself or with 
molybdenum and chromium, a product possessing great toughness and ability 
to resist shock.* 

The Bulletin of the Imperial Institute contains an article on Occurrence and 
Utilisation of Tungsten Ores,t in which the use of tungsten in armour plates 
-is referred in the following terms : — 

" The addition of a small quantity of tungsten toughens steel plate 
and renders it less liable to fracture. This property renders tungsten 
steel specially suitable for the manufacture of armour plate, projectiles, 
and firearms." 

Captain Le Guen, of Brest, probably prior to 1869, made, according to 
R. A. Haddeld, experiments as to the effect of tungsten on charcoal iron used 
for cannon founding. The metal was found to possess greater resistance 
than even the best cannon iron.l 

In addition to its principal use (as an alloy with iron in the manufacture 
of tool steel), tungsten is used, in the form of acid salts, as a mordant in 
dyeing for rendering coloured cotton goods " fast " or washable, and Unen 
and cotton, theatrical, or other properties non-inflammable ; in the manufacture 
of stained and other papers ; in glass-making, weighting silks, &c. 

Heinricli Ries states that the fluorescent properties of tungstate of lime 
juake it useful in the Rontgen ray apparatus.^ 

Magnet Steel. — Hadfield states that : — 

" One very peculiar eflect of the adding of tungsten to ordinary high 
carbon steel is that the retentiveness is greatly increased, hence its 
suitability for permanent magnet steel."|| 
He also states that : — 

"Unlike alloys of iron manganese and iron nickel, there is no falling 
ofi" or decrease in the magnetic qualities by increasing additions of 
tungsten."^ 
After noting that tungsten is specially well suited for making permanent 
magnets, the same authority adds : — 

" It would appear that the highest magnetic power attainable with 
the greatest retentivity would be reached with alloys containing 
4 to 7 per cent, of tungsten."** 
The usual composition of tungsten magnet steel, according to Hadfield, 
is:-n 

Carbon 0-50 

Manganese 0'60 

Tungsten 4'50 

W. L. Fleming! + states that during 1909 : — 

" Considerable interest was manifested in thf^ utilization rf tungsten 
in manufactures. The Chemische Fabrik, Fuerth, Bavaria, now makes 
a ferro-tungsten powder, which is of high purity, and alloys readily with 
the metal, a much better product being made with greater ease and with 
less waste than with the use of metallic tungsten or ferro-tungsten in lumps. 
The research laboratory of the General Electric Company, at Schenectady, 
N.Y., has succeeded in producing pure tungsten, which is so ductile that 
it has been drawn into the finest wire, and which possesses extraordinary 
tensile strength. 

* The Engineering and Minin? Journal, 23rcl Januarj-, 1909, p. 203. t Vol. VII, Ho. 3, 1909, p. 293. 

t Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, p. 42. § Economic Geology, 2nd Ed., 1910, p. 565. || Journ. 
Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, p. 63. H Ilnd., p. 51. •• liiid., pp. 63, 64. tl" Ibid., p. 66. 

tX The Mineral Industry, XVIII, 1909, p. 693. 



18 

"The outcome of this work should be important in the manufacture of 
the tungsten lamp, as the fragility of the filament has been one of the 
most serious di*awbacks to the introduction of this lamp. 

O. J. Steinhart states that : — 

" Besides tool steel, tungsten is used for few other purposes. Per- 
manent magnets for telephones are made of tungsten steel, and are said 
to answer well. Within the last two or three years a great number of 
patents have been taken out for the manufacture of metallic filaments 
for electric lamps. The so-called Osram lamp, which has a practically 
pure tungsten filament, is one of the best known examples 

" The essential feature of the patented process for producing these 
tungsten filaments consists of mixing the powdered metal into the form of 
a paste with an organic binding agent, such as, for instance, gum arable — 
which, of course, is rich in carbon — and squirting this paste into a thread. 
The filaments afterwards go through various processes, by means of which 
all carbon is said to be removed, leaving the metal absolutely pure. 
These lamps consume only about one-third the amount of current of the 
ordinary carbon filament of the same candle-power. . . . One ton 
of 70 per cent, wolframite will suflice to make 18 million lamps."* 

According to the Bulletin of the Imperial Institutef : — 

" Considerable improvements have been made recently in the manu- 
facture of the tungsten lamp, and it is now claimed that it has an 
efficiency of 1 to 1-2 watts per candle-power." 

Dr. Adolf Gurlt states, in reference to wolfram and scheelite, that : — 

"These minerals were employed in 1848 by the English chemist,. 
Robert Oxland, for the preparation of tungstate of soda, to be used as 
a mordant in dyeing cloth, and, as proposed by Versmann and Lyon 
Playfair, for the impregnation of vegetable tissues, linen and cotton,, 
to render them non-inflammable and almost fire-proof. The same com- 
pound, when free from impurities, such as tin, copper, arsenic, bismuth, 
and iron, is the basis of the manufacture of wolfram-metal and other 
preparations of tungstic acid and the oxides of barium, copper, 
chromium, or of blue oxide of wolfram, or the tungstate of wolfram 
oxide and soda. This last preparation has a shining bronze lustre, and 
like most of the other tungsten compounds, which are characterized by 
yellow, green, Vjlue, pink, and gold colours, it is used in the manufacture 
of stained pajiers, <kc."| 

R. A. Hadfield states that : — 

" As regards the manufacture of tungsten compounds from wolfram,. 
Oxland's method is generally adopted, the ore being fused with soda ash 
and sodium nitrate, in a reverberatory furnace, and the soluble sodium 
tungstate dissolved out and obtained by crystallisation." 

" Roscoe states that metallic tungsten is then prepared by calcining 
an intimate mixture of tungsten trioxide and carbon in a covered 
crucible, and that it may also be obtained by reducing the same oxide 
in a current of hydrogen, or by reduction of the chloride in vapour of 
sodium. It has, however, not been made in the coherent condition. 
In order to obtain the pure metal, the pure bright canary-yellow-coloured 
trioxide is ignited in a platinum or porcelain tube to bright redness in a. 

• The Mineral Induntry, XVII, 1908, pp. 834-835. t Vol. VII, No. 3, 1909, p. 294. J Trans. Am. Inst. 
Mininif Engineent, XXII, Pt. I, 1894, pp. 237, 238. 



19 

current of dry and pure hydrogen. The metallic powder thus obtained 
possesses a light bright grey metallic lustre, and has a specific gravity 
of 19-129 (Roscoe).'-* 

F. L. Hess states that tungsten is used in the manufacture of small 
•crucibles for use in the electric furnace. These ai'e made by mixing tungsten 
powder with a small amount of some carbonaceous paste, and pressing the 
mixture into the desired shape, after which it is sintei'ed in an electric 
furnace. This makes a porous metallic vessel, as the particles will not melt 
sufficiently to run together. The crucibles when used are lined with an inert, 
infusible substance, such as thoria, for, when heated, tungsten combines with 
many substances, f 

The same authority also records that : — 

"Sodium tungstate has almost precisely the same rate of expansion 
for moderate temperatures as platinum, so that it is used for sealing 
platinum apparatus in making water determinations in chemical analy.sis 
of rocks." ^ 

Tungsten has also been used as an alloy with lead for manufacture 
of bullets.§ 

An alloy of tungsten, aluminium, and copper is said to combine lightness 
with strength, and resistance to oxidation for propellers, automobile 
parts, &c.\\ 

H. S. Auerbach states that : — 

"Although classed among the rare metals, it is surprising to what an 
extent tungsten is used in the industrial world. In some form or other 
it is alloyed with practically all the metals. It finds, however, its 
greatest application as an alloy of steel, to which it imparts many 
valuable properties. Foreign metallurgists were the first to recognise 

and take advantage of this fact 

" The addition of tungsten to steel car-.springs increases their stifihess. 

" A bronze powder, much used in decorating, is made by fusing 
potassium tungstate and tin."^ 

* Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, p. 35. t Mineral Resources U. States, U.S. Geol. Survey, 

1908, p. 731. : Ibid. § Bull. Imp. Inst., VII, No. 3, 1909, p. 294. || Ibid. K The Engineering 

and Mining Journal, LXXXVI, 1908, p. 1147. 



20 



III— ORES OF TUNGSTEN* 
Commercial — 

Wolframite (Fe, Mn) WO4 ... Tungstate of iron and manganese. 

Hiibnerite MnWO^ ... ... Tungstate of manganese. 

Ferberite Fe WO4 ... ... Tungstate of iron. 

Scheelite CaW04 Tungstate of lime. 

Cuprotungstite CUWO4 ... ... Tungstate of copper. 

Cuproscheelite (Ca, Cu) WO4 ... Tungstate of lime and copper. 

Stolzite PbWOi Tungstate of lead. 

ileinite FeW04 Tungstate of iron. 

Wolframite. 

Monoclinic. Crystals commonly tabular ; also prismatic. Often in bladed 
crystals ; also irregular lamellar ; coarse, divergent columnar ;. 
massive granular, the particles strongly coherent. 

Cleavage — Very perfect. Fracture uneven. Brittle. 

Hardness = 5-5-5. Specific gravity, 7-2-7-5. Lustre submetallic ; 
metallic-adamantine ; resinous. 

Colour, dark grayish or brownish black, brownish red, hair-brown ; 
streak nearly black to dark reddish brown ; greenish gray. Opaque, 
or sometimes translucent. Sometimes weakly magnetic. 

Before blow-pipe, fuses easily (F= 2-5-3) to a globule, which has a 
crystalline surface, and is magnetic. 

With salt of phosphorus gives a clear, reddish-yellow glass while hot, 
which is paler on cooling ; in R.F. (reducing flame) becomes dark red ; on 
charcoal with tin, if not too saturated, the bead assumes on cooling a green 
colour, which continued treatment in R.F. changes to reddish-yellow. With 
soda and nitre on platinum foil fuses to a bluish-green manganate. 
Decomposed by aqua regia (equal parts nitric and hydrochloric acids. — 
J.E.C.), with separation of tungstic acid as a yellow powder. Wolframite is 
sufficiently decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid, or even hydrochloric 
acid, to give a colourless solution, which, when treated with metallic zinc, 
becomes intensely blue, but soon bleaches on dilution. 

Dana states that : — 

"The most important varieties depend on the proportions of the iron 
and manganese. Those rich in manganese have specific gravity 7-19- 
7-54, but generally below 7-25, and the streak is mostly black. 

"Those rich in iron have specific gravity 7 2-7 54, and a dark reddish- 
brown streak, and they are sometimes feebly attractable by the magnet." 

"The percentage composition for the pure tungstates, and the com- 
pounds in various ratios between them, is as follows : — 



W03 


FeO 


MnO 




76-3 


237 




= 100 


76-4 


19-7 


3-9 


= 100 


76-4 


18-9 


4-7 


= 100 


764 


11-9 


11-7 


= 100 


76-5 


9-5 


14-0 


= 100 


76-6 


• • • 


234 


= 100 



• Dana, Deacriptive Mineralot^y. 6th Ed., 1892, pp. 982-901 



21 



HUBNERITE. 

Monoclinic. Usually in bladed forms, rarely in distinct terminated 
crystals. Colour brownish red to hair-hrown to nearly black. Streak 
yellowish brown, greenish gray. Often translucent. Chiefly manganese 
tungstate. Less fusible than wolframite, and gives a strong reaction for 
manganese. 

The original hiibnerite was from the Eric and Enterprise veins, in Mam- 
moth district, Nevada, in a vein 3-4 feet wide in argillite, with scheelite, 
fluorite, and apatite. 

This variety has been identified by G. W. Card from near Torrington, 
where it occurred as "tiny brown blade-like crystals, intimately associated 
with quartz. An analysis by J. C. H. Mingaye indicated that the mineral 
contains iron in the proportion of about one part of ferrous oxide to six 
of manganous oxide."* 

An impure hiibnerite from Torrington was partially analysed in the 
Departmental Laboratory in 1903; unfortunately the locality is not speciti- 
caljy defined : — 

3578 _ Water -84 

"03" Tungstic trioxide (W0») 34-06 

Manganous oxide (Mn02) 6'83 

Lead oxide (PbO) 2-41 

Ahimina (AUOs) -80 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 1'17 

Ferric oxide (Fe.Og) 110 

■|-Insohible in acids (gangue) 50'72 

Lime, Jmagnesia, and undetermined 1'47 

100-00 

Ferberite. 

Monoclinic. The original "ferberite" was massive, granular, with some 
imperfect planes of crystallization. Cleavage perfect. Hardness = 4 - 4-5. 
Specific gravity^ = 6-80 Breith.; 7-10 Rg. Lustre imperfectly vitreous, a 
little submetallic-adamantine. Colour black. Streak brownish black ta 
blackish brown. Opaque. 

The Torrington ore (New South Wales) may be classified as "ferberite," 
as will be seen from analyses on page 70. 

Scheelite. 

Tetragonal ; with pyramidal hemih^drism. Contact and penetration — 
twins. Also reniform with columnar structure ; and massive granular. 
Cleavage : most distinct on octahedral faces. Fracture uneven. Brittle^ 
Hardness=:4-5 - 5. Specific gravity = 5*9 - 6-1. Lustre vitreous, inclining 
to adamantine. Colour white, yellowish white, pale yellow, brownish, 
greenish, reddish ; sometimes almost orange-yellow. Streak white. Trans- 
parent to translucent. 

Composition. — Tungsten trioxide, 80-6; lime, 19-4=100. Molybdenum 
is usually present. 

Before the blow-pipe in the forceps, fuses at 5 to a semi-transpai-ent glass. 
Soluble with borax to a transparent glass, which afterwards becomes opaque 
and crystalline. With salt of phosphorus forms a glass, colourless in outer 
flame, in inner green when hot, and tine blue when cold ; varieties containing 

♦Records Geol. Survey N.S. Wales, VIII, 1909, p. l.'iS. 
t Consisting of clean white quartz and a small quantity of niobic acid. J A good reaction for magnesia. 



22 

iron require to be treated on charcoal with tin before the blue colour appears. 
In hydrochloric or nitric acid decomposed, leaving a yellow powder soluble in 
ammonia. 

Occurs altered to wolframite, by the action of a solution of bicarbonate of 
iron and manganese, or perhaps mainly through sulphate of iron arising from 
the decomposition of pyi'ite : crystals more or less altered to wolframite are 
<;0'omon at many localities. , 

The remaining species are not of commercial value, and need not be 
specifically dealt with. 

O. J. Steinhart* gives in simple language a test for tungsten minerals 
wliich identifies them from other minerals which are often mistaken for 
them — viz., titaniferous iron, magnetite, tantalite, cassiterite, and tourmaline, 
for wolframite and hiibnerite : and barytes for scheelite : — 

" Boil the finely-powdered mineral for twenty or thirty minutes in 
hydrochloric acid, and after dilution with water drop a piece of zinc, tin, 
or even iron, into the solution. The appearance of a blue colour, 
ultimately changing to claret, and finally to brown, caused by the 
gradual reduction of WO3 to its intermediate lower oxides, is a pretty 
certain indication of the presence of tungsten, although molybdenum 
behaves in a somewhat similar manner." 

The name " tungsten," or " tungstein," was originally applied to scheelite. 
V\. A. Hadfield states that : — 

"In 1871, Scheele demonstrated that the mineral found at Biopberg, 
in Sweden, and called in Sweden ' tung-stein ' (heavy stone), on account 
of its high specific gravity, consisted of calcareous earth and a peculiar 
'acid.' Scheele was, thei-efore, the first to determine the exact com- 
position of the tungsten mineral now known as 'scheelite,' and that it 
was a combination of lime with tungstic acid."t 

The following analyses of concentrates quoted by O. J. SteinhartJ are 
■of interest for comparison with those locally produced : — 

" Wolframite, from the north-western part of Spain : — 

Tungsten trioxide (WO3) 64 'IS per cent. 

Stannic oxide (Sn02) 0'68 ,, 

Manganous oxide.. (MnO) 642 ,, 

Ferrousoxide (FeO) 1088 „ 

Silica (SiOj) 771 ,, 

Alumina (AUOg) 5-.32 ,, 

Lime (CaO) 1'21 ,, 

Magnesia (MgO) 316 ,, 

Chrome oxide (CrO) 038 

"1. Ferberite concentrate.s, Clyde Mine, Nederland ; 2. Ferberite 
concentrates. Baker Ranch, Nederland : — 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Tungsten trioxide (WOs) 61i5 6388 percent. 

Silica (SiOj) 16-10 6-45 

Ferrousoxide (FeO) 19-33 2044 

Ferricoxide (Fe^Oj) 035 

Lime (CaO) O'SS 0-35 

Manganous oxide. (MnO) 0-51 0-37 

Alumina (AljO,) 2-49 219 

Magnesia (MgO) 039 O'SO 



• The Mineral Induatn', XVII, VM)H, p. 831. t Journ. Iron and Steel Institute, II, 1903, p. 23. 

t The Mineral Induotrj-, XVII, l»u8, p. 830. 



23 



" Electro-magnetically separated ore, originally associated with tin 
ore from mines in Cornwall : — 



Four Samples. 

Tungsten trioxide (WOg) 60-3 

Stannic oxideCSnOi) 066 

Insoluble 220 

Ferricoxide (FeoOj) 2-4 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 13"5 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 5'2 



to 



72 '4 per cent. 

8-75 

4- 

9-4 
16-2 

5-4 



" Hiibnerite, from Natalie Mine, Silverton, Colorado : — 

Tungsten trioxide (WOj) 70'21 per cent. 

Silica (SiOo) 4-91 

Ferrous oxide(FeO) 2-03 

Lime (CaO) 0-37 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 21 "72 

Alumina (AI2O8) 0'56 

" Scheelite, from various countries, shows the following range of 
composition : — 

Tungsten trioxide 69" to 78" percent. 

Lime 16' ,, 19- 

Iron oxide 0'5 ,, 22 

Manganese oxide 0"18 ,, C"77 

Phosphoric acid 014,, 0'2 

Silica 2-5 „ 12-5 



24 



IV.— CO^■CENTRATION OF TUNGSTEN ORES. 

SCHEELITE. 

All the first-grade concentrates produced at Hillgrove are crushed and 
■concentrated by hand by means of bucking irons or hammers, usually on 
extemporised tables or flags of granite ; and primitive, but effective, jigs 
on a small scale. The capricious occurrence of scheelite, in small lenses 
and thin veins, frequently in the stupendous gorge of Baker's Creek, 
necessitates dressing plants wherever the mineral is obtainable ; and the 
limited output of one given locahty offers no inducement for erection of 
cru.shing machinery. 

For long the "seconds" from spalling and jigging were valueless to the 
producer; now, however, these can be treated locally at a cost of 15s. per 
ton. Moreover, the usually associated antimony sulphide forms a second 
commercial product from the Wilfley tables. 

The Writer is indebted to Mr. F. H. Gibson, of the Bull Frog Lode, 
Hillgrove, for the following sketch of his extemporised jigging plant, 
which illustrates the local method of hand concentration. Also for the 




FxG. 1. — Jigging Plant, Bull Frog Lode, Hillgrove. 



following dimensions of his compact bucking table : — Height, 3 ft. ; width, 
3 ft. ; length, 6 ft. ; divided in centre for two men simultaneously crushing. 
Estimated that two men can buck and sieve two-thirds of a ton in eight 
hours with this plant. The bucking hammers are 5 inches square and weigh 
6 lb. 

The following notes on concentration tests by means of a Huntington 
mill and Frue vanners at the late Government Metallurgical Works at Clyde 
(New South Wales), in 1900, may be of interest. The parcels, of which 




o 



c 2; 



25 



the following particulars are supplied, were probably the first in the State 
to be subjected to machine tests : — 

Ore containing Scheelite, from Hillgrove ; crushed and concentrated at the 
Government Metallurgical Works, Clyde, New South Wales, in 1900, 
under the supervision of J. C. H. Mingaye, F.I.C., F.C.S., Analyst and 
Assayer. 



No. 



Mineral. 



Weight. 



value. 
W0,% 



Concentrates 
produced. 



Assay 
value. 

W03% 



Tailings 

Assay value. 

WO3 % 



tons. cwt. qrs. lb. 
Scheelite 6 16 2 4 



9 18 2 12 
6 2 11 



'»{ 



8-81 
25 



tons, cwt 
No. 1—0 7 
No. 2—0 10 



qrs. lb. 
3 16 
3 9 



8 3 26 



1 1 20 
4 3 8 



64-5 
55-5 



5615 

48-5 



2-32 



Antimony 1-48%; Gold 
1 dwt. 23 grs. ; Silver 
1 dwt. 18 grs. per ton. 

No record of tailings 
assay — books missing 

Antimony 2'05 % 

Antimony 2'5 % ; Gold 
1 dwt. 23 grs. ; Silver 
3 dwt. 22 grs. per ton. 



The hand-dressed marketable concentrates run from 70 to 72 per cent, of 
tungstic oxide. Scheelite is slightly lower in value than wolfram (usually 2s. 
to 3s. per unit), but contains a higher percentage of tungstic oxide (80'6 to 
76*6 in the pure minerals); hence an equal value is attained by dressing to a 
correspondingly higher grade. Wolfram concentrates usually run from 60 to 
70 per cent, tungstic oxide. 

The battery of the Eleanora Gold Mine during 1909 was utilized to treat 
waste heaps of material which had accumulated at the various scheelite mines. 
About 1,800 tons were crushed, and the mineral concentrated by Wilfley 
tables; 35 tons of concentrates, valued at £2,775, being obtained, equivalent 
to 1-9 per cent.* 

Before di.scussing local practice it will be of interest to note that of other 
countries. Of American concentration, W. L. Fleming statesf : — 

" Successful wet concentration of tungsten is difficult, although mills 
claim to save from 70 to 90 per cent. In 1909 the American Smelting 
and Re6ning Company made an appropriation for experiments in tungsten 
ore dressing at the Globe plant, near Denver. The usual basis of quota- 
tions on tungsten ores is a grade containing 60 per cent. WO3, and when 
the product falls far short of this content, it is difficult to sell even at a 
reduced quotation. Of late, however, buyers are taking the Colorado 
product on a 40 per cent, basis, thereby allowing the mills to send a great 
deal of the quartz which carries slime into the finished product, and 
avoiding a heavy loss. Wolframite is slightly magnetic, and magnetic 
concentration has been tried with success in some cases. This process 
does not apply to scheelite. 

" Wet concentration is the means generally employed. In this con- 
nection tungsten ores are difficult to work on account of the fact that the 
minerals are relatively soft and slime badly. In California, a scheelite 
and quartz ore is treated in a mill containing the following equipment : 
Blake crusher, 6-foot Huntington mill, and 6-foot Frue vanners. It is 



Ann Rep. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1909, p. 58. 



tThe Mineral Industry, XVIII, 1909, pp. 691, 692. 



26 

claimed that this process makes hss slime than would be generated in 
crushing with a stamp battery, and in these mills no attempt is made to 
recover the slime. The operators claim to recover 70 per cent, of the 

tungsten contents of the ore." 

" The separation in the Boulder County field, Colorado, is difficult, as 
the tungsten mineral is there scattered through and intimately mixed in 
fine particles with the gangue (quartz). At the Wolf Tongue mill the 
ore passes over a 2-inch grizzly, through a 7 x 10 Blake crusher to a 
20-stamp battery (the stamps of which weigh 1,000 lb,, and make ninety 
6-inch drops per minute), through a 20-mesh long-shot screen, thence by 
launder to a hydraulic classifier, which makes three products. The 
coarse goes to two No. 5 Wilfley tables, the middlings to a No. 3 
Wiltley, and the slimes to two other No. 3 Wilfleys. Tables Nos. 1 
and 2 (the No. 5 tables) make four products : a finished concentrate and 
a tailing for the slimers. There are five 12-foot Wilfley slimers. The 
slimes from the five concentrating tables are brought together in a tank 
and distributed to four of the slimers, each of which makes three 
products : a finished concentrate, a finishing tailing, and a middling 
taken from the four last panels. The middling goes to the fifth slimer, 
where two products are made — a concentrate and a tailing. The mill 
concentrates 15 into 1, and treats 25 tons in twelve hours." 
In local milling of wolfram ore heavy stamps are favored, ranging from 
800 to 1,250 lb. per stamp, falling 5 to 8 inches, at the rate of 95 to 110 falls 
per minute. The heavier stamps (1,000-1,250 lb.) are most in i-equest, the 
crude ore first passing through breakers. 

The discharge screens of the stamper boxes are wire-wove, and uniformly 
64 holes to the square inch. Even with these coarse screens, it is found at 
the Torrington Ore Company's battery that 80 per cent, of the concentrates 
will pass through 1,600 holes to the inch. 

Grinding mills — Krupp's and Huntington — have been installed at Mole 
Table-iand and at Hogue's Creek, near Dundee. 

The former consists of a wet-crushing ball mill, of an estimated capacity of 
100 tons per twenty-four hours. The screens are wire-wove, of 144 holes to 
the square inch. 

The Huntington mill has a diameter of 3 ft. 6 in., with screens having 144 
boles to the inch. 

Concentration is effected with Wilfley, Card, Woodbury, Krupp, and 
Ferrari's tables, and Frue vanners ; concave buddies, and blanket tables 
or launders. 

The buddies are dead or stationary ; trailing chains or extemporized 
brushes are used to form circular riflBes, or keep the surface of the sediment 
even. 

At the Rockvale Wolfram Company's plant, in the second unit, the pulp, 
passing 16 to 25-hole screens in the stamper boxes, will run to a 5-hutch 
May Bros.' jig ; the "spigots " to a five-screen Huntington mill of 64 niesli ; 
the mill pulp from which will be fed to Card tables after passing through a 
ftpitzkasten classifier. 

A classifier is also used in connection with the pulp from the Krupp ball- 
mill at the Torrington Wolfram Proprietary Company's plant. 

The Huntington mill plant running in connection with the Glen Eden 
Mine, Hogue's Creek, near Dundee, embraces a No. 2 Dodge rock-breaker, 
3 ft. 6 in. Huntington mill with screens of 144 holes to the square inch, 
and an Imperial Woodbury table ; the seconds being twice run. 



27 

It was estimated that about ,£20,000 was spent in 1910 in erection of 

treatment plants in connection with the industry. 

An analysis of tailings from the Torrington Ore Company's plant is given 

on page 32. Though, apparently, the tailings appear free from wolfram 

particles, the analysis shows a little under 1 per cent, to be present. 

The Queensland methods of dressing and concentration have, so far, been 

of a primitive character (see p. 32), but the recent establishment of a 

modern plant is described in the Queensland Mining Journal* as follows : — 
" The new mill erected by the Irvinebank Mining Company, at the 
Mount Carbine wolfram field, about 20 miles from Mount Molloy,. 
commenced continuous crushing on 30th May last. From notes supplied 
by Mr. S. Horsley, Inspector of Mines, w^e learn that the new battery 
occupies an imposing situation on the eastern slope of the hill and facing 
Manganese Creek. It is capable of treating about 50 tons daily. The 
plant consists of twin hoppers, rock-breaker, elevator, twin feeding 
hoppers, self-feeders, and ten head of stamps, the last-named in separable 
units of five each, for reducing the wolfram-bearing quartz to pulp. The 
concentration plant is systematically arranged in two exactly similar 
parts. Each part has at its head a spitzkaste, or classifier, from which 
the heavier material is sent to three catching jigs and one dressing jig. 
The lighter material overflows from the classifier to four settlers o£ 
varying capacity in succession. The first settler delivers its contents ta 
a Card table, the second and third to Krupp tables, and the fourth to a. 
pair of Luhrigs. The tails of some of these, as well as those from the 
jigs, are ground in a Wheeler pan and pumped back to the spitzkaste 
for reconcentration. 

"The clean wolfram is fed into a circular drier of a new and improved 
type, from which it is bagged for transport. 

" A tubular boiler of about 40 h.-p. provides ample power through a 
horizontal engine of even greater capacity. A separate engine drives 
the rock-breaker and elevator during the day, providing sufficient 
material for the night-shift ; but at night it drives a dynamo, lighting 
all the works most effectively. The latter has a capacity of 170 c.p. 
incandescent lights." 
Mr. Danvers Power, who recently examined the mine and plant states 

that the jigs have been discarded in favour of Krupp Tables, the former 

requiring too much water. 

Since concentrating operations began in 25th May, 1911 to 9th September, 

3,862 tons of ore, extracted from a lode, varying from a few inches to 9 feet 

in width, yielded 100 tons 6 cwt. of concentrates dressed up to 73 per cent. 

of tungstic trioxide. 

Magnetic Separation of Wolfram from tin-wolfram concentrates. 

Fortunately for the principal wolfram-producing centre, the concentrates are 
free from value-reducing associates. The Bismuth and Mount Everard Mines 
contain commercial percentages of bismuth, the former grading to about 6 or 
8 per cent. In the others the percentage is usually below commercial grade. 

Magnetic separation is, therefore, not a pressing question as in those 
centres — like Cornwall — where tin and wolfram ores are intimately associated. 
In the Pulletop, Germanton, Jingellic, and Dora Dora districts, these minerals 
occur in conjunction, but so far the lodes have not proved of sufficient im- 
portance to make the question of sei)aration acute. 

• Vol. XII, July 15th, 1911, p. 324. 



28 

In Great Britain it is recorded that : — 

"The greater quantity of the tungsten ore at present being produced 
in this country is obtained in Cornwall as a by-product in tin-working. 
Deposits which were formerly neglected on account of the difficulty of 
separating tinstone and wolfram, have now been rendered available by 
the use of electro-magnetic processes for separating the two minerals. 
Large heaps of wolframite discarded by earlier workers have been 
found."* 

Scheelite occurs to a very small extent mixed with wolfram in one of the 
Gulf lodes in the Emmaville Division ; these could be separated if desirable, 
and in quantity, as the foi'mer is unaffected in the electro-magnetic field. 

It may be of intere.st to local holders of mixed tinstone and wolfram — as 
in the districts mentioned — to quote the following succinct statement of the 
electro-magnetic separation pi'ocess in use in Cornwall. 

Treatment of Tin, Woljram, and C opj)er-hearitig Ore in Cornwall. 

R. H. Couran, in a paper read before the Scientific Society, Broken Hill, 
l^ew South Wales,! states : — 

" The mt-thod of treatment at the mill taking the ores from the Glitters 
group is practically the last word in Cornish milling practice. The ore 
contains cassiterite, wolfram, and copper sulphides. After passing over 
grizzlies, the ore is broken in Blake-Marsden breakers, and fed by 
Challenge suspended feeders to a battery of 25-1,100 lb. California 
stamps, and there crushed through 20-mesh gun-metal wove screens. It 
is then classified in spitzlutten, giving three spigot products and an 
overflow. Each of the spigot products is taken to a Buss table, of which 
there are eight, the middlings from which are reground in a Krupp 
ball-mill, and afterwards treated on Luhrig vanners. The overflow from 
the spitzlutten goes to a ten-compartment condensing and classifying 
spitzkasten. The various spigot products from the spitzskasten are 
taken to the distributing boxes of double Luhrig vanners, the product 
of the first three pairs of compartments going to three double vanners, 
and of the last two to one double vanner. The middlings from these 
four machines are treated on a fifth one, after some of the water has 
been eliminated in a spitzkasten. All the tailings pass to an eight- 
compartment spitzkasten, 40 feet long, where a small quantity of lime is 
added. A large quantity of water is removed and pumped back to the 
storage tanks. The tailings pass on to dams, where they are settled, it 
being illegal to run solids into the neighbouring river. 

"The concentrates from the Buss tables, being coarser and of a higher 
grade than those from the vanners, are roasted separately in a Brunton 
calciner. They then pass to a Wetherill Magnetic Separator of the c ross 
belt type, which gives five products. In the first and weakest field, 
magnetic oxide of iron ; in the second, other oxides of iron, with adhering 
oxides of copper; in the third, oxides of iron and wolfram; in the 
fourth, wolfram ; the non-magnetic product being oxide of tin and a 
small proportion of siliceous waste. 

"The copper and iron product from the second field is sold to the 
copper smelters. It contains up to 10 per cent, of copper, and realises 
a good price, owing to the high percentage of iron oxide present. If 

* rJullctin Imperial rnHtitute, VII, No. 2, 1909, p. 171. 
t Auatralian Minini; and Kri({ineerin;< Ileview, I, No. 9, .June 5th. 1909, pp. 279-282. 




o 



* o 



Plate VII. 




T. U. Mchola-<. 

Torrington Ore Company's Ore Bin, Fielder's Hill Quarry. 



29 

there is too much tin and wolfram in the first two products, they are 
crushed dry in a ball mill, and then re-treated. The wolfram products 
are finished in kieves and sold. 

" The vanner concentrates are at present further concentrated after 
rod,sting in huddles, then di'ied in a reverberatory drying furnace, and 
treated on the magnetic separator, giving similar products to the Buss 
table concentrates. The preliminary huddling is necessitated by the 
limited capacity of the magnetic separator. A second machine will 
probably be installed, when this mill will be avoided. 

"The secret of the success of magnetic separation lies in the roasting, 
it being desirable to produce the greatest possible quantity of the higher 
oxides of iron, and at the same time eliminate the sulphur and arsenic. 
If the ore is rich in copper, the iron and copper products of the separator 
are treated with hot dilute sulphuric acid in a lead-lined vat, and the 
copper in the resulting solution precipitated on scrap-iron. All the 
water used in treating the roasted products is passed through precipi- 
tation tanks." 
The occurrence of wolfram in the Butler tin lode, near Torrington, parti- 
cularly on the hanging wall, may possibly require magnetic separation in 
future working. 



30 



v.— GENESIS OF TUNGSTEN DEPOSITS. 
Mode of Occurrence of Tungsten Ores. 

Contrary to general belief, the rarity of tungsten ores refers more to- 
quantity than occurrence. They are found fairly widely disseminated, but 
usually in extremely small quantities commercially considered. Even when 
a comparatively large deposit or "bunch" is located, its sudden exhaustion 
is almost certain, though others are to be expected either below or along the 
strike of the lode channel. To quote an American authority : — 

" Frequently new finds of tungsten are reported, but the workable 
deposits are few. A mine when discovered may show quite a bunch of 
tungsten mineral, but in a few feet of work the shoot may suddenly 
die out or diminish until the only use for the tungsten is as an 
encouragement to further prospecting."* 

A statement according with Australasian mining experience, especially as 
regards the rich " bunches " or " bungs " occurring in lodes. 

A study of the mode of occurrence of tungsten minerals at the Torrington 
field, however, ofiers greater prospect of permanence as regards the more 
even dissemination of the minerals in the large quartzose masses of that 
locality. Large quarry faces here reveal a more or less even distribution of 
the ores through the rock mass, though occasional bunches of pure oi'e 
occur, generally in vugs and joints. The average yield of mixed concentrates 
(wolfram and bismuth ores) usually amounts to about 1 per cent, or less. 
The possibility of cheap mining, by quarrying, afforded by these large low- 
grade deposits is another important factor which should go far towards 
successful exploitation. 

America is now the largest producer ; Colorado and California contributing 
the bulk of the output in the order named. Brief notices of the mode of 
occurrence in these important centres will therefore be of interest. 

W. L. Fleming! states that : — 

"The production of Colorado, as hei'etofore, was entirely from Boulder 
County, and amounted to 1,100 tons J of tungsten concentrates. The 
producing mines of Boulder County may be divided into two groups : 
(1) Along a narrow belt about nine miles in length, following 
Boulder Creek east of Nederland. (2) An area of about one square 
mile situated about 1^ miles south of Nederland. These two 
groups comprise the Nederland fields, the most important in the 
United States both as to extent and richness of the ore. The mineral is 
locally termed Wolframite, but corresponds in composition and'properties 
to the mineral ferberite. The gangue material is quartz, the vein 
usually being in a granitic gneiss, mica gneiss, or porphyry." 

'•California. Although tungsten occurs at various points in the State, 
the Atolia regicm, San Bernardino County, is the only locality where 
mining is condu<^ted, the entire tungsten production of California in 1909 
being ma/le by the Atolia Mining Company.]: 



• W. L. Fleinlntc, " The Mineral Influatry," XVIII, 19f»0, p. 6»0. t The Mineral Industry, 1900, 
Vol. XVIM, p. 688. t Short tons. —J. E.G. 



31 

" The ore in this district is scheelite ; it occurs in massive foi-m in 
bunches and seams in veins which vary from stringers to about 4 feet in 
width. The vein matter is quartz, altered country rock and calcite ; 
the country rock is granitic. The veins strike easterly and westerly and 
dip from 40 to 80 degrees north. The Atolia Mining Company is the 
chief operator in this district. Wolframite has been found in the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, about 12 miles north of Raymond, 
Madeira County. The ore occurs in bunches up to 2 or 3 lb. in weight, 
in a glassy quartz vein, from 4 to 16 inches in width."* 

Fleming states that : — 

"The tungsten occurs here as scheelite, and wolfram in veins 
through granite at a distance of from 1 to 2| miles from a granite 
contact where copper and silver ores were found and worked about 
thirty years ago."t 
P. H. Carl, I states that :— 

" For both vanadium and tungsten the production in Colorado in 1910 
was larger than ever before ; and this is also true of the United States, 
as Colorado is the px-incipal producer in this country of both of these 
steel-hardening metals. Tungsten production is now a well-established 
industry. The ore deposits have been extensively developed and 
adequate plants provided for handling the ore, so that a dependable 
supply is assured and the users of the metal are able to make their 
plans accordingly. As the possible application of tungsten in the 
manufacture of tool-steel, armor-plate, &c., are such that its use may 
be indefinitely extended, the market for the metal, now that a regular 
supply has been provided, has remained stable in spite of the recent 
depression in the steel industry." 

T. L. Walker states :— 

" Where intrusive granite comes in contact with slates and schists, 
quartz or pegmatite veins frequently intersect both the intrusive and 
the overlying slate schist series. It is now generally agreed that in 
many instances the cooling and solidifying granite mass contracted, and 
in the last stages became fissured ; the fissures being tilled by constituents 
of the igneous mass which had not yet solidified. This mother liquor 
filled in the rifts in the rock mass, and on cooling and solidifying gave 
rise to very coarse granite known as pegmatite In other instances the 
granite mass, and the overlying slate series as well, contain irregular 
veins rich in minerals, containing fluorine, boron, lithium, tin, and 
tungsten. These are tin ore veins, and at times carry considerable 
tungsten, in addition. Fissures in the slate-schist appear to have 
become quartz veins, at times carrying gold or tungsten. Where the 
mantle of slate or schist overlying the granite mass is not very thick 
these veins may occur at considerable distance from known outcrops of 
granite, while the granite may be at no great distance below them. 
The evidence, therefore, suggests that tungsten deposits found in proxi- 
mity to granite masses are derived from these constituents of the igneous 
mass which are expelled towards the close (either as mother liquor or as 
gases), and find their way into pegmatite masses, irregular tin-wolfram 
quartz veins in the granite or quartz veins, carrying occasionally gold, 
or tungsten, or both.§ 

* The Mineral Industry, 1908, Vol. XVII, p. 827. t Ihid., 1909, Vol. XVIII, p. 688. t Mining Science, 
TiXII, No. 1617, January 26th, 1911, pp. 92-94. § Report on the Tungsten Ores of Canada, Dept. of Mines, 
•Canada, 1909, p. 7. 



32 

Queensland being the next largest producer, rather full extracts from local 
geological reports are given : — 

Queensland Tungsten Deposits. 

Of their mode of occurrence, B. Dunstan, F.G.S., Government Geologist, 
states : — 

" Regarding the rocks in which wolfram occurs, it was noticed that^ 
while granite is usually the country rock of the wolfram lodes, the 
mineral also occurs in greisen, felsite, quartz-porphyry, chlorite, schists, 
slates, and quartzites. In this respect wolfram differs very little from 
other common minerals, and it would be quite useless to lay down a rule 
as to the kind of country to which wolfram prospecting should be limited. 
The most that can be said is to look for wolfram near granite. 

" The gangue of wolfram is usually quartz, but it also occurs without 
this mineral in greisen, chlorite, muscovite, biotite, topaz rock, fluor-spar, 
beryl rock and quartzite (?). 

" The deposits are of varying types, consisting of fine veins of quartz, 
large bodies of quartz, lenticular bodies of quartz, irregular masses of 
chlorite, quartz, mica, &c., and impregnations of greisen and granite, 
The irregular deposits have yielded the largest quantities of wolfram, 
and these have been found in isolated patches or bunches, the invari- 
able pinching-out of which on sinking has given rise to the impression 
that it is useless searching deeper for similar patches. 

" The metallic minerals associated with wolfram are very numerous, 
bismuth in several forms and molybdenite being the most important 
fi'om an economic point of view. Other minerals present contain in one 
form or another, manganese, iron, tin, copper, zinc, lead, uranium, 
cerium earths, &c. 

" Amongst non-metallic minerals, those mosc commonly associated with 
wolfram, other than quartz, are topaz and fluor-spar ; while tourmaline, 
beryl, muscovite, and biotite are of frequent occurrence. 

•' Regarding permanence in depth, no feature has been observed 
which in any way indicates wolfram to be limited to shallow deposits. 

" The dressing of the wolfram ore is, on most of the fields, a very 

simple operation, consisting of hand-picking the stone as it comes from 

the lode, then burning in kilns, crushing in a spring dolly, .sieving by 

hand, and finally sluicing. The condition in which a lot of the wolfram 

exists rather favours this treatment, but much of the hand-work could 

V)e performed much more economically by mechanical means. At 

Koorboora a battery is profitably treating stone which contains about 

4 per cent, of wolfram."* 

Of Wolfram Cainp — the centre of the largest production of wolfram in 

Queensland, and the only place where molybdenite has been profitably mined 

— W. E. Cameron, B.A., Assistant Government Geologist, states : — 

" Wolfram was first discovered here in 1894, when 60 tons were sent 
away for a return of £670. The mineral was found scattered over 
the surface in large water-worn lumps and coarse grains, and in a fine 
condition in the sand of the creeks and watercourses. During 1899,. 
when the price of the mineral was at its highest, 240 tons were 
sold from the field, of an average value of £38 per ton. A heavy fall 
in value during the latter part of 1900, and the exhaustion of the more 

• (^ueenHlarid Govt. Minin)^ Journal, VI, 1905, p. 334. 



33 

easily obtained surface sheddings from the lodes, led to a reduction of 
the output to 72 tons for 1901 and 55 tons for 1902, the average price 
of which was about £18 per ton. As a set-off to this depreciation, the 
value of molybdenite, which had latterly been found associated with the 
wolfram in many of the lodes when sunk on below the surface, increased 
rapidly from <£45 a ton in 1900, when the first parcel was sold from the 
field, to £200 per ton at the end of 1902. The output increased from 
11 tons in 1900 to 26 tons in 1901, and 38 tons in 1902. 

" Geology. — The country at the mines is described by Mr. Cameron as 
' granite of a reddish tinge, characterised by a preponderance of siliceous 
material in the shape of large and abundant grains of quartz, with less 
abundant red felspar and muscovite mica." 

"The wolfram, molybdenite, and metallic bismuth occur associated 
together in irregular- shaped masses and veins of quartz in the granite. 
Either wolfram or molybdenite generally predominates in the one lode, 
the bismuth being scattered through the quartz in smaller patches. 
None of the lodes occupy well- defined fissures, nor can their outcrops be 
traced for any distance along the surface. In the case of the more 
distinctly molybdenite-bearing lodes about ' Jeff's Camp,' these siliceous 
ore-bearing bodies have been followed down from small outcrops on the 
.surface as irregular pipes of ore, dipping, as a rule, at low angles towards 
the north. These pipes of siliceous material are surrounded on all sides 
by granite, the whole of the lode being taken out in the width of an 
ordinary shaft. There is no sign of any fissure along which the mineral- 
bearing solutions might have been introduced, or which might be 
followed in the anticipation of striking other bodies of ore."* 

Of the mode of occurrence of tungsten in Portugal — the next largest 
producer — the Bulletin of the Imperial Institutef contains the following 
particulars : — 

"Some of the most important deposits are situated at Panasqueria, in 
the province of Beii'a Baixa, and cover an area of about 1,000 hectares ; 
the deposits are divided into the Panasqueria and Cabeco Pias groups. 
In the former wolframite occurs, associated with cassiterite, iron oxide 
and pyrites, mispickel and mica, chiefly in the Cambrian rocks, in 
quartz veins, which vary in thickness from 4 inches to nearly 2 feet. It 
is noteworthy that these deposits occur nearly in the centre of a sedi- 
mentary deposit, about seven miles from an}' exposures of igneous rocks ; 
whereas in Spain and Portugal the mineral usually occurs either in 
igneous rocks or at the contact of them and sedimentary rocks. These 
beds are nearly horizontal, dipping 5° to 10° to the south." 

Origin op the Torrington Wolfram amd Bismuth Deposits. — Previous 

Mention. 

Hartwell Conder, M.A., A.R.S.M., writing of the " Wolfram Deposits of 
New England,"^, states that : — 

"The most prominent rock is the granite which has intruded into the 
claystones of the Carboniferous period, and appears to be mainly 
responsible for the elevation of the land. In conjunction with it occurs 
large masses of quartz-porphyry, hard, and much broken by parallel 
jointings." 

* Queensland Govt. Mininjr Journal, IV, 1903, p. 350. t Vol. VII, No. 2, 1909, p. 171. 

X The Mining Journal, Vol. LXXVIII, 1905, pp. 170, 171. 
49— B 



34 

Of the Torrington or Cow Flat wolfram area, Mr. Conder writes : — 

" It extends about four miles square, and consists of an elevated 
plateau composed for the most part of granite. In places, however, the 
slates or claystoues still survive, and it is at the contact of these two 
rocks that most of the discoveries so far have been made. As the road 
going north traverses the country, it passes over a series of small ridges 
rising up some 30 or 40 feet above the rest of the land, and marked 
by outcrops of barren rock. On nearer examination this rock proves to 
be closely related to the granite, but so altered by a process of silicifica- 
tion as to be hardly recognised as such. The main granite massif of the 
district is composed of a black mica variety and about equal parts of 
felspar and quartz. In these outcrops the mica and felspar have 
disappeared, and a hard siliceous body remains, for which the Writer can 
find no adequate name, but merely describes as quartzose rock." 

" A marked feature of these formations is that they appear invariably 
to occur in conjunction with the slate. In some cases they present true 
contact bodies, with granite on one side and slate on the other. In 
other cases the quartzose rock is bordered o)i all sides by the slate, 
which is penetrated also by radiating quartz lodes. 

" It would seem that the outcrops are tongues of igneous rock thrust 
up into the surrounding slate, and whatever their nature at first, by 
their position they would probably become outlets for vapours and 
solutions from the main body, and be largely metamorphosed by these. 
In some cases, from the homogeneous nature of the rock, the meta- 
morphic action seems to have been carried to its farthest limit. In 
other instances the rock still retains a granular structure, and might 
even be mistaken for a quartzite were not the gradations into the sur- 
rounding rock readily traced. 

" Similarly, the contact between the gi-anite and the slate represents 
a plane of weakness ; and here we find instances where the gradation is 
most distinct, black mica granite merging into a rock where the crystals 
of the felspar are decayed away and partly filled with silica ; this passes 
into a solid quartzose rock with no felspar, and merely greenish stains of 
iron silicate in places. Beyond this comes the indurated claystone with 
quartz leaders running through it 

"As accessories to the inetamorphic action, we have the economic 
n)inerals wolfi-am and bismuthite, or bismuth carbonate. The wolfram 
is by far the most plentiful, and occurs both in crystals or patches in the 
rock, and in small crystals disseminated through it. 

*' The large outcrops themselves are not sufficiently lich to prove 
payable ; in parts the wolfram occurs permeating irregular patches, 
which are of good value, but the difficulty and hard work involved in 
tracing these patches are so great that en bloc the stone is not remunera- 
tive. It is, however, usually penetrated by veins of (juartz from 3 to 
12 inches wide, and these veins frequently are enriched to such an extent 
that they have proved highly profitable to small working parties ; but 
here again the course and dip of the veins is so irregular, and they 
pinch out so fretjuently into the quartzose rock, that it would be 
extremely difficult to work them profitably on a large scale. There are, 
however, modifications of the.se larger formations that have proved very 
profitable. 



35 

" The first of these consists of pegmatite dykes associated with the 
quartzose rock. On one property (Torrington Ore Company's Bismuth 
Mine. — J. E.G.) a dyke of this nature, with large black mica and felspar 
crystals, crosses the strike of the siliceous outcrop at a small angle, and 
dips irregularly towards the slate contact at about 45 degrees. 

" In parts it is 12 feet wide, and so far the workings have penetrated 
about 75 feet, the ore yielding 8 per cent, wolfram and good bismuth 
values. Fluor-spar, monazite, and beryl also occur. Some of the 
wolfram slugs are of great size, a lump of pure wolfram, weighing 300 
lb., having been taken out. 

" Again, in places the slate has been fissured, and a true lode formation 
is seen. The lode may be either of quartzose nature, apparently an 
altered granitic dyke, when the wolfram is usually disseminated through 
it ; or composed of crystalline quartz, when the wolfram is generally in 
large crystals. A very good instance is that of a narrow vein of quartz 
about 6 inches wide ; this split and formed a vugh about 12 inches wide 
and 20 feet high, lined with quartz crystals. Clayey quartz leaders 
branched out into the slate, and the whole carried throughout large 
masses of wolfram, some over 30 lb. in weight. 

" Lodes in the granite ai'e also met with. In most cases there is an 
alteration to greisen along a certain line, and through the greisen runs a 
lode of quartz carrying wolfram." 

E. C. Andrews, B.A., Geological Surveyor, who watched the development of 
mining operations at Torrington for a considerable period, has contributed 
two papers,* embodying his views of the genesis of the wolfram and bismuth 
deposits ; and illustrated them by numerous sections of small areas in the 
Torrington Ore Company's Bismuth Mine, which he believed threw light on 
his view of the motle of origin of the ore deposit ; and on which he based his 
conclusions regarding the Torrington wolfram occurrences. 

Mr. Andrews' views are briefly stated in the following deductions : — 

" It appears legitimate to infer that the early Mesozoic coarse acid 
massif, in ' sloping ' its way upward, caused a huge block of the slate 
and conglomerate roof to founder and sink a considerable distance into 
its mass ; and that between the engulphing and engulphed masses a 
strong interact-'on was set up, during which highly hydrated and gaseous 
granitic secretions were forced along the numerous joints traversing the 
foundered block. These joints, as a rule, appear to have been very 
narrow, but the intensely heated gases and water attacked and altered 
the slates on both sides of the joints to hard granular quartz 
('quartzite'). These ' quartzites ' were then themselves partly altered to 
masses of sericite, which, in turn, became modified either to glassy- 
quartz, massive felspar, biotite, or coarse pegmatite, with or without 
fluor-spar, monazite, beryls, tfec."t 

The illustrations accompanying the above papers are stated to show, 
inter alia : — 

1. Gradual change from slate to cairngorm and " quartzite." 

2. Passage of slate to hard granular quartz, and this in turn to brittle 

glassy quartz, with development of sericite and wolfram. 

•Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, VIII, Pt. IV and V, 1907. t Ibid., Pt. V, p. 249. 



36 

3. Alteration of country (1 slate. — J. E.G.) with development of massive 

white felspar, beryls, fluor-spar, and biotite. 

4. Gradual passage of slate to banded compact granular quartz, with 

further change to pegmatite, associated with wolfram and sericite. 

5. Dark and much silicified slate, shov.'ing flakes of mica, altering into 

quartz. 

6. Mostly biotite ) -r., p i i. li. i.- 

r. Tt j.-i. } "bases oi slate alteration. 

/. i:^egmatite J 

The results of the whole series of observations are regarded as delineat- 
ing :— 

(1) " Along the joints the slate and conglomerate country is usually 

altered to compact granular quartz (' quartzite '). 

(2) " Along joint intersections and the more central portions of the 

replacements, the minerals developed are usually glassy quartz, 
massive felspar, pegmatite, sericite with granular quartz, with 
smaller admixtures of crystalline biotite, fluor-spar, beryls, &c. In 
the latter occur the best values of wolfram and bismuth."* 

In April,. 1911, Mr. Andrews, after discussion with the Writer, and 
examination of recently obtained contact specimens and sections, supplied the 
following statement for publication in this work : — 

" From later evidence obtained by Mr. J. E. Carne, in the nature of 
sharp contacts between the so-called ' quartzite ' (and associated 
pegmatites) and the sedimentary rocks in the Bismuth, Fielder's Hill, 
Rockvale, and Oakleigh Mines, it would be better to consider these 
quartzose masses as actual ' end results ' of the granitic differentiation, 
and not as alterations of the slate. 

" The association of sericite in these masses ; the peculiar subcircular 
shape (of the outcrops. — J. E.G.) of such masses as Fielder's Hill, and a 
comparison of them with the secondary mica gold pipes at Timbarra, 
had led me formerly to consider the ' quartzites ' as being ' more of a 
compromise between the advance agents of the rising solutions and the 
country, while the pegmatites and fluor-spar appear to approximate more 
to the typical composition of the invading solutions. 

" This question of origin does not affect the economic question raised 
in that report in which it was stated that the wolfram ores ' will be 
found to be distributed along — or near — the whole three dimensional 
contacts with the slate derelict (or roof) with the granite.' " 

G. Bogenrieder, A.I.R.S.M. (Loben), in a paper on "Wolfram Ores, 
Occurrence and Uses," published in the Australian Mining Standard\ on 
16th December, 190H, describes the geology and mode of occurrence of the 
Torrington wolfram deposits as follows : — 

" Tlie greater part of this area, the Mole Tableland, is of Palaiozoic 
age, with Permian relationships, and consisting of coarse-grained 
intrusive granite, metamorphosed in a greater or less degree. The 
character of the granite varies greatly ; every variety of the granite is 
more or less silicified (greisen), quartz and chlorite traverse the granite 
massif very irregularly. In the altered zone (greisen) the lodes contain 
only finely-disseminated tungsten ore, and there are also rich veinlets 
and pockets filled with high-grade ore. Other minerals, such as native 
bismuth, molybdenite, cassiterite, monazite, occur in the quartz lodes, 

* Recordg Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1907, VIII, I't. V, pp. 244-248. t Vols. XL and XLII, 1908-1909. 



37 

and mostly at their contact with euritic granite. Thus the wolfram ores 
of the New England district occur in three formations : — 

"(1) Ciystalline rocks — consisting of muscovite, biotitt, quartz, 
felspar. 

(2) Euritic granite — consisting of quartz, felspar, and hornblende. 

(3) Alluvium overlying Silurian claystone — consisting often of 

chlorite, in which the wolfram is embedded, together with 
beautiful loose crystals of beryl, monazite, topaz, and quartz 
(Heffernan's claim)." 

Careful study of the mode of occurrence of the Mole Tableland lode-rock, 
locally designated "quartzite," and of the associated sedimentary rock known 
in the district as " trap," compels the Writer to conclusions distinctly 
antagonistic to the "absorption" and "alteration " theory advanced.* 

Extensive quarries and other workings expose numerous instructive 
contacts of the four classes of rocks represented in the field — viz., granite, 
quartzose ore-rock, pegmatite, and sedimentary. 

The intrusion of the quartzose and pegmatitic ore-rocks, both in the granite 
and in the sedimentary rocks, is conclusively established by the evidence of 
the contacts. 

In most instances the lines of division between the intruded and invaded 
rocks are sudden and distinct. Wherever signs of alteration are visible they 
are confined to superficial margins, and usually take the form of secondary 
mica on the surface of the sedimentary rocks or partial metamorphism of the 
contact area. 




Sedimentary rocks. 



Fig, 2. — Intrusive Contact. Fielder's Hill Quarry. M.L. 325, 
Parish Kock Vale, County Clive. 



Usually, however, the boundaries of the latter have been broken and 
invaded by the intrusive ore-rock ; fragments of the sedimentaries engulphed 
in the igneous rock retain sharp angular outlines, notwithstanding partial 
alteration. Huge blocks, moreover, have been similarly engulphed without 
marked alteiation, as will be seen from the accompanying sections and 
photographs. Only where the invaded rock is shattered and intruded by 
tongues and veins of the igneous rock is any appreciable effect noticeable. 

It is indeed remarkable, considering the extent of disturbance, how little the 
sedimentary rocks have been affected. Even in close contact — as at Fielder's 
Hill — conglomerate pebbles are readily detachable from the sandy matrix in 

* E. C. Andrews, Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1907, VIII, Pt. 3, pp. 239-251. 



38 



■which they are embedded ; whilst sandstones, beyond harshness and 
friability, betray no marked evidence of metamorphism even near the actual 
contacts. 

Where there is evidence of contact metamorphism, the altered selvage is 
altogether distinct, and sharply marked off, from the coarse semi-granular 
quartzose ore-rock. Moreover, the latter intrudes granite at considerable 
distances from the sedimentaries, where absorption and alteration of the 
latter is not involved. 



l". ////'__ 




~] Quartz-topaz ore-rook. 
Y//////A Sedimentarj' rocks. 

Fig .3.— Intrusive Junction of Ore-rock at Fielder's Hill Quarry. 
M.L. 325, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive. 



Wherever the Writer has observed silicic replacement of sedimentary rocks, 
the result has invariably V)een horny or colloidal, with retention of original 
cleavage and bedding planes ; and not pellucid and coarsely granular as in 
the Mole TaVjleland rock. 

The poHsiV)ility of alteration of a slate (or claystone) through sericite and 
brittle quartz, to cairngorm and finally pegmatite, as postulated, has been 
subjected to critical investigation in the field, and to the light of scientific 
literature ; the consensus of opinion being against such a transformation. 



39 

Van Hise, in his monumental work on " Metamorphism," states that : — 
" Pegmatization has been variously explained as the result of true 
igneous injection, of aqueo-igneous action, and of water impregnation or 
cementation, Brogger has strongly enforced the idea that many 
pegmatite veins are true igneous injections. In support of this idea he 
cites undoubted frequent association of pegmatitic veins with intrusive 
masses of acid rock, the fact that many of the pegmatitic veins behave 
like other eruptives, and that their structure is that of igneous rocks."* 

Van Rise's own view is given on page 723, after quoting G. H. Williams 
opinion in support of igneous origin: — 

" It seems to me that to explain adequately all the facts of pegma- 
tization described in various regions of the world, we must conclude 
that all three processes have been at work — in some cases igneous 
injection, in some cases aqueo-igneous action, in other cases pure water 
cementation, and in still other cases combinations of two or all of 
these processes. It is further believed that there is no sharp separation 
between these processes, but that, on the contrary, they are all 
gradations between the three. That is, it is thought highly probable 
that, under sufficient pressure and at a high temperature, there are all 
gradations between heated waters containing mineral material in 
solution and magma containing water in solution. In other words, 
under proper conditions water and liquid rock are miscible in all 
proportions."! 

" In summary, pegmatization, when it occurs on a great scale, usually is 
found in connection with great intrusive masses in which there have 
been long-continued composite intrusions. No great batholith is the result 
of a single simple intrusion. The introduction of such masses went on 
irregularly through a very long time. Pegmatitic masses are not the 
result of a distinct epoch of eruption, but usually are produced in 
connection with the closing phases of igneous activity. The pegmatites 
very frequently cut the igneous rocks intruded at an earlier stage of the 
igneous epoch. After the main masses of igneous rock have crystallized 
they continue to contract as they cool, and are thereby fractured. This 
occurs while they are still very hot, and gives ready access to the 
pegmatizing material."! 
Re fusion and recrystallization Van Hise states : — I 

" The only way which I can suggest to show fusion and recrystallization 
on a large scale is to prove that the rock supposed to be fused and 
recrysfallized possesses the chemical composition of the rock from which 
it is believed to have been derived. For instance, a fused and recry- 
stallized shale should possess the textures and structures of an igneous 
rock, but the essential chemical composition of a sedimentary rock. 

" There can be no question that fusion of fragments included with 
igneous rocks does take place, very numerous inclusions which are found 
adjacent to great batholiths show various stages of absorption. Fre- 
quently the partly absorbed residual fragments are profoundly metamor- 
phosed, being perhaps, completely recrystallized, and frequently greatly 
changed in chemical composition from that of the parent rock." 

" It may well be doubted whether the excess of heat in a molten 
magma, beyond that required to keep it liquid, is sufficient to perform' 
the vast amount of work required for hquefaction of a great mass of 

* U. states Geol. Survey, 1904, p. 721. f Ibid., p. 7i7. J/Wd.,p. 730. 



40 

solidified rock. Work has to be done in fusing the material, and work 
must be done in expanding the material. Besides I'aising the temperature 
to the fusion point, all the latent heat of fusion must be supplied. 
The heat required for the process of fusion of rocks in a furnace is very 
great. Ordinarily a magma has a temperature only slightly in excess 
of that required to hold it in liquid form. Therefore, that it could 
furnish a sufficient amount of heat to liquefy immense masses of solid 
rocks seems highly improbable."* 

" If any considerable mass of solidified rock were fused as a result 
of contact with igneous rocks, it is natural to suppose that for a zone of 
variable width the two would become mixed, and thus there would be a 
gradation in chemical composition between the fused rock and a normal 
magma." 
J. P, Iddings states : — 

" Evidences of absorption by the igneous magma of material from 
adjoining rocks are very slight, even in cases where these rocks have 
been profoundly affected by the intruded magma. There appears in 
most cases to have been almost no solution and diffusion of material 
from the adjacent rocks ; the chemical composition of the igneous rock 
is not different where it is in contact with quartzite, limestone, or 
silicate rocks of various kinds. In many cases of fine-grained intrusive, 
quartzose igneous rocks there is no evidence of appreciable reaction 
between the igneous rock and the invaded rock, even where this is a 
carbonate. It commonly happens that blocks, or fragments, of rocks 
are enclosed in molten magma without exhibiting evidences of solutional 
reaction between the magma and enclosed blocks. The contact surface 
between them is frequently distinctly recognisable, there being no 
evidence of blending. Few statements as to signs of solution ard diffu- 
sion of rock by igneous magmas have been substantiated by chemical 
evidence of a change in the intrusive igneous magma, due to such a 
reaction. 

" It appears from a study of intruded igneous rocks that they were 
not sufficiently heated to melt, or dissolve, invaded rocks to any appre- 
ciable, or at most to any considerable extent. In many cases the 
temperature was near that of saturation for some of the components, 
and often near the point of solidification of the whole magma, as shown 
by the minuteness of the crystals formed and by the absence of meta- 
morphism in the adjoining rocks. And in some cases of profound metamoi- 
phism of the surrounding rocks it appears to have been escaping gases 
that effected the change, the igneous rock exhibiting no signs of 
reaction."! 
The outlier of claystones, sandstones, and conglomerates in the Parish of 
Rock Vale, County Clive, with which the Mole Tableland, or Torrington, 
wolfram and bismuth deposits are so intimately associated, has been provi- 
sionally classed as Permo-Carboniferous (Lower Marine) to agree with strata 
at Swamp Oak Creek, and near Rocky Creek, where paheontological evidence 
has been obtained in favour of this classification. So far, none has been 
obtained from the outlier, though conglomerates are well developed, and with 
these the fossiliferous V^eds of the localities mentioned are associated. 

The sedimentary rocks have been intruded by the granite, and both by 
the latest phase of granitic intrusion — the quartzose ore rock, in the form 
of dykes, sills, and bosses. 

• U. StaUsg Geol. Survey, 1904, p. 731. t Igneous Rocks, Vol. I, 1909, p. 282. 



41 

Considerable difficulty is experienced — as pointed out by Conder — in 
establishing a name for the Torrington ore-rock, which will denote its com- 
position, and yet imply its origin. 

The local term "quartzite" conveys a good idea of its macroscopical struc- 
ture, but gives an erroneous impression of origin. 

'' Quartz-rock " denotes its principal composition, but is apt to conflict with 
the ordinary vein-filling quartz. Its igneous and intrusive origin is estab- 
lished by fractured contacts, and confirmed by miarolitic vugs lined with 
quartz, and occasional felspar crystals. 

J. Lomas* and A. Harkerf discuss quartz as an igneous rock. The former 
states that : — 

" There is a priori no reason why quartz should not exist as an 
igneous rock. Given a magma with a limited amount of bases, combina- 
tions would go on until the silica had united with all the bases available, 
and then a residuum would be left which on consolidation would be pure 
quartz."! 

Harker states : — 

" There can be no doubt that, on the fringe of a granite intrusion and 
its apophyses, we sometimes find a gradual transition from normal 
granite through various rocks which may be termed pegmatite, greisen, 
»fec., to pure vein-quartz." 
He, however, considered that : — 

" Closer inquiry was necessary before we can be warranted in regard- 
ing such quartz veins as igneous rocks in the ordinary- sense. There are 
many indications, both from the geological and from the petrographical 
side, that the more siliceous products in question, and especially the 
pure quartz-veins, belong at most to the waning stage of igneous activity, 
when the temperature had fallen, and the agency of water had become a 
more important factor."§ 
Both these authorities were, however, discussing admittedly homogeneous 
quartz-veins of moderate width, that in no way correspond to the massive 
outcrops of quartzose-rock foi-ming the Mole Tableland wolfram and bismuth 
lodes. As before stated, the intrusive character of the latter is well estab- 
lished, and it is probable that further investigation, as mining development 
proceeds, will reveal a gradual approximation to an aplitic constitution. The 
presence of a pipe of pure kaolin in the massive quartzose outcrop at Fielder's 
Hill is very significant in this connection, and may represent felspar origin- 
ally disseminated through the mass. 

The structure of the ore-rock resembles a semi-granular aggregate of 
granite quartz, and not homogeneous vein-quartz. 

J. E. Spurr,|| describing a class of quartz-alkali felspar rocks, which he 
named " Alaskites," states that ; — 

" These rocks are sometimes fine-grained, or may be coarse, like 
granites, but have a nearly uniform structure and composition. In the 
Alaskite series the change is continued by a relative increase in amount 
of quartz and decrease of felspar. One remarkable phase studied is a 
porphj'ritic dvke rock whose groundmass consists almost entirely of 
quartz in small interlocking grains, giving both in the hand specimen 
and under the microscope the exact appearance of a quartzite." 

•Geol. Mag., New Series, X (4), 1903, pp. 34-36. t /6id., p. 95. t 76id., p. 36. § ifti'd., p. 95. 
H Trans. Inst, of Mining Engineers, XXXIII, 1903, p. 310. 



42 

The composition of the Fielder's Hill kaolin is shown in the following 
analysis by W. A. Greig : — 

Water (100° C) 1-80 

Water above 100° C 10-05 

Silica 55-26 

Alumina 30-82 

Ferric oxide 0-90 

Ferrous oxide trace 

Lime 0-32 

Magnesia 026 

Potash ... 038 

Soda 0.32 

Manganous oxide trace (under 0*02) 

Titanium oxide absent 

Phosphoric anhydride O'OG 

Sulphur trioxide absent i ,c 

Strontia present t (^P^'^^^^^^T? '■^''''*'°° 

Lithia present S ""^^^ 

100-17 
No soluble chlorides or sulphates present. 

Since the above was written, the Torrington associated rocks have been 
submitted to careful petrological examination by G. "VV. Card, A.R.S.M., 
Curator and Mineralogist, whose determinations set beyond doubt the 
intrusive (granitic) origin of the ore-rock. The following notes are the results 
of his observations : — 

[8245] Granite (Alaskite) ; Carter's Wolfram Lease. 

" Gray. Porphyritic, with phenocrysts of quartz and creamy felspar 
up to 15 mm. in length. The groundmass is flecked with Vjlack mica. 

Under the microscope, the felspar comprises orthoclase and albite, and 
a combination of the two gives rise to the variety perthite. There is a 
very little black mica, and nests of secondary mica. This latter has 
developed in the felspar to some extent. 

[8253] Granite. Torrington Bismuth Mine. (See below.) 

Felspar. 

"A special examination was made by the Analyst of felspar from 
the Torrington Bismuth Mine. This has a specific gravity of 2-542, 
while the potash and soda contents are 11 1 and 2^ respectively; it is 
therefore orthoclase. 

Mica. 

" Associated with the Torrington wolfram deposits is a dark mica 
which has hitherto been regarded as biotite, on account of certain 
optical properties. A suspicion that it was in reality a lithium-bearing 
mica was confirmed (by H. P. White) by a spectroscopic examination of 
specimens from the following localities : — Cow Flat, Wild Kate, 
Bi.smuth Mine, Hefiernan's, and Fielder's Hill. A chemical examination 
will be made of the large flakes found at Smith's Mica Lode, Black 
Swamp, and in the meantime Mr. White has shown that it is a lithium- 
bearing variety very rich in iron. The classification of the Micas does 
not rest on a very satisfactr^ry basis. The nearest analogue seems at 
present to bo the variety found in the Erzzeburg Tin-field, and known 
as Rabenglimmer — raven mica. 



43 

It should be noted that the mica occurring in the fine-grained dark- 
coloured, and coarser grained light-coloured rocks respectively appears 
to be one and the same variety. 

Topaz-bearing rocks. 

"The specimens examined are from Fielder's Hill and from the 
Torrington Bismuth Mine. The phenomena from the two districts are 
similar. 

Fielder's Hill. 

" [15360] (M) to the eye is a quartz rock, but under the microscope 
much topaz is seen, and here and there a little orthoclase. 

" [8248-9] are obscurely banded, fine-grained quartzite-like rocks. 
These, under the microscope, consist of much topaz, with quartz. 

" [8250] is an ash-coloured finely granular rock, traversed in all 
directions by veins of a coarser granitic-looking rock, much lighter in 
colour. 

The former can be partly studied with the pocket lens. Under the 
microscope, it consists of dark mica and quartz, with some topaz in 
places. The constituents are evenly granular, and uniformly distributed. 
The average grain size is about O-l mm. The latter consists of the 
same minerals in different proportions, mica being subordinate and 
topaz much more important. 

While it would seem as if the coarser rock intrudes the finer, there 
are some appearances which point the other way. 

[8251] Generally similar to 8250. 

" Bismuth Mine. 

" [15365] (M). — A vein of pegmatite, fringed with dark lithia mica- 
traverses a fine-grained rock similar to those described from Fielder's 
Hill. 

" [8247] A dark, sedimentary-like rock, very fine-grained. Under 
the microscope it is diflBcult to make out, but would appear to closely 
resemble the fine-grained dark rocks above described. 

"[8253] A dark, finegrained quartz-topaz mica rock, traversed by 
veins of tO|)az-bearing granite. Bands in the former are distinctly 
faulted by the latter, the relative ages being thus clearly established. 
The older rock contains much dark mica, and the constituents can be 
discerned by the unaided eye. The invading granite is an even-grained 
admixture of quartz and white felspar, while smaller amounts of a dark 
mica and a silvery form are also present. Under the microscope, topaz 
is seen. The felspar is principally cloudy orthoclase, but small clear 
crystals of a rather basic plagioclase occur. The silvery mica appears to 
be sericite, but it is not very evident whether it (and topaz) is replacing 
felspar or not. It is not at present known whether the dark mica is a 
lithium variety. 

" Origin of the Rock. 

"That the lighter-coloured, coarser rocks are, more or less, altered 
forms of intrusive granite seems reasonably certain. Where felspar has 
been completely destroyed, either a quartz-topaz-rock or a quartz-lithia- 
mica topaz rock remains, which is quite analagous with greisen, but for 
which no particular name has as yet been applied. Topaz-greisen would, 
in some respects, seem suitable. The origin of the dark, fine-grained 



44 



rock is uncertain; the microscope affording no direct evidence. That it 
may be a sedimentary rock, completely altered by metasomatism, seems 
possible."' 

(The latter surmise is in accord with 
field evidence, the samples all being from 
contacts. — J.E.C.) 

No evidence is forthcoming of deep 
foundering of the Perrao-Carboniferous 
outlier in the underlying granite, the 
reverse being the case, the igneous 
intrusives being forced up into the 
sedimentaries in the form of bosses, 
dykes, and sills. 

The intruded sedimentaries of the Mole 
Tableland occur simply as a mass isolated 
by denudation from the extensive develop- 
ment of the series along the Beardy and 
Mole River systems. Wherever their 
margins are in contact with the acid 
granite or with extensive porphyries in 
these localities, the same conditions occur, 
the division lines being sudden and 
distinct, even where tongues and thin 
dykes of the intruding granitic rocks 
penetrate the sedimentai'ies. 

Such contacts are open for study in 
many places, and are all against the 
absorption and alteration theory. 




Quartz-topaz ore-rock. 
Sedimentary rocks. 



Fig. 4. — Section of intrusive contact 
in " Bismuth "' Mine, Torrington. 
Scale about 2 ft. to an inch. 




+ -t- -t--»-+-^-^ j- + -h + 
+ ■•--»- -h+-(--t--(--(- + -i--t- 

-••■»■-•- -H-t- + -t--(-<-t-t- 
+ V + -t- -)--t-. -t- -t--t--f-t- 



I "^ fl lntr,,'.iuf ;»f,lii,r Inrtprnri, U ' ''. ' '-I Cr^nttr (Tinp. qrAJnP.d) \//////A Spdimpntarv rOCk 

Scale, 9 ^ ? '? Feet 

Fig. 5.— Section in entrance to Carter's Cut. M.L. 70, Parish Bates, County Clive. Torrington 
Wolfram Projirietary, Ltd., showing intrusive contact. 



Of the genesis of the Hillgrove lodes, in which scheelite occurs, E. C. 
Andrews states that : — 

" In the gneissic granite, on which the town of Hillgrove stands, and 
near its contact with the spotted slates of the locality, numerous veins 
of '♦cheelite are known to occur. At times the occurrences appear to 



45 

be true fissure veins, at others they appear to fill contraction fissures in 
the granite. Dykes of varying composition and texture at times 
accompanying the scheelite. The reefs, as shown by a study of these 
dykes, appear to be referable to at least two periods of vein formation, 
one set originating not long after the consolidation of the upper granite 
mass, another forming a secretion from a magma producing a later set of 
dykes. These dykes, it may be added, appear to have determined the 
greater number of the auriferous reefs at Hillgrove."* 

" This mineral occurs in true fissures, both in granite and slate. 
Dykes of vaiying degrees of basicity (chiefly intermediate), often accom- 
pany the reefs. The reefs apparently owe their existence to the action 
of this dyke series, which cuts alike both the granite porphyry and the 
diorite of the district. 

" The igneous rocks appear either — 

1 . To have caused vigorous circulation of water by heating through 

the older granite porphyry, thereby causing segregation of the 
contained scheelite ; 

2. Or to have caused a hydrated excretion to be given off by a 

deeply-seated magma, whose earlier differentiations resulted in 
the dyke formations themselves. This hydrated excretion 
would contain the scheelite. f 

The Hillgrove granite, in which the scheelite lodes occur, has been 
analysed by J. C. H. Mingaye, with the following results : — 

Weight Molecular 

percentage. Ratio. 

Silica (Si O2) 69-55 1.159 

Alumina (AUOs) 14-16 0-139 

Ferric oxide (FejOs) 0-60 0-004 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) .S-.33 0046 

Magnesia (MgO) 1-45 0-036 

Lime (CaO) 220 0-039 

Soda(Na20) 3-14 0-051 

Potash (K2O) 4-09 0044 

Water (H2O 100C=) 020 

„ (H2O 100°C + ) 0.30 

Carbonic acid (302 ) 0-04 

Titanic acid (TiOa) 054 0-007 

Zirconium oxide (ZrOj) none 

Phosphoric acid (P2O3) 0-12 0001 

Sulphuric acid (SO3) O'll 

Chlorine (CI) none 

Fluorine (F) none 

Sulphur S (FeSi) none 

Chromium sesquioxide (CroOa) trace 

Nickel and cobalt oxide (NiO, CoO) none 

Cuprous oxide (Cu 0) trace 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 0-23 0003 

Barium oxide (BaO) 007 

Strontium oxide (SrO) trace 

Lithium oxide (Li20) none 

V^anadic oxide ( V2O5) none 

100 13 

Specific gravity, 2-658 

* Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 142. 
t Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1905, pp. 160, 151, 



46 

G. W. Card determined the norm as follows : — 

Quartz 266 

Corundum 0*8 

Ort hoclase 24 '6 

Albite 26-7 

Anorthite lO'O 

Hy persthene S "0 

Magnetite '9 

Ilmenite I'l 

Apatite 0"3 

" This rock would be classified by the Quantitative System as 1,4, 2, 3, 
under the magmatic name of Toscanose."* 

W, A. Longbottom, A.S.A.S.M., in a paper entitled ''Scheelite Mining — 
Occurrence and Treatment in New South Wales,"! states that: — 

" The scheelite belt in the Hillgrove district has been proved over an 
area of approximately four miles in length by two miles in width, 
though the actual value of the mineralized belt is very patchy. The 
ore is found in true fissure lode formation, averaging auy thing from 
6 inches to H inches in width; and where the lodes are cut by cross 
courses or faulted, the scheelite is often found in a crystallized condition 
at right angles, and in lenticular masses lying along the wall, and these 
patches are generally very rich." .... 

" It is rather curious, but well worth noting, that in practically every 
case of faulting met with the lode is ultimately picked up again to the 
right and above its position before being intersected, presuming the 
scene of the alteration to be faced by the observer. 

" Another coincidence worth remarking on is that the scheelite 
country seems to have located itself on either side of the gold reefs, and 
runs as nearly as possible parallel with them, and this fact may have its 
significance." 

* Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales 1907, VIII, PI. 3, p. 20. 
t The Mining and Engineeriiitr Review, Feb. 6tb, 1911, Vol. Ill, No. 29, pp. 199,200. 



47 



VI— PERMANENCE OF TUNGSTEN DEPOSITS 

The persistence of tungsten deposits in depth, and the maintenance of 
values, are naturally vital questions confronting investors, particularly at 
Torrington, where the deposits are large and capable of being worked by 
quarrying. Before recording local indications of permanence, it will be well 
to study the rather scanty literature of tungsten occurrences in other 
countries bearing on the subject. 

Victor G. Hills,* describing those of Boulder County, Colorado, U. States, 
states : — 

" The veins of this district are numerous, but small and irregular, and 
usua lly cannot be traced far. The tungsten ore deposits have been 
described as ' bunchy.' This is true, generally speaking, and conforms 
to the description of tungsten veins all over the world." .... 

" In the deepest workings which I have seen the ore shows no sign of 
impoverishment. In fact, the principal vein of the Colorado Tungsten 
Corporation, at 320 feet down on the dip of the vein (230 feet vertically 
below the surface), shows a better ore-shoot than ever before. This was, 
until recently, the deepest mine in the district, and probably the deepest 
exclusive tungsten mine in the world. The Conger Mine, located on a 
parallel vein 400 feet distant, is now down 360 feet deep and working, 
and it is reported to have the best ore-body that it has ever shown." 
Hartwell Conder, in his description of the Torrington deposits of New 
South Wales, remarks that : — 

" The permanence of the ore in depth is another question. So far 
no workings here have gone below 100 feet, at which depth wolfram in 
moderate quantity was met with, but the Writer's own impression is 
that secondary enrichment has taken place in the shallow depth."! 
E. C. Andrews states : — 

" The method of formation for these Mole Tableland wolfram deposits 
suggests an interesting problem in the permanence or otherwise of these 
ore masses at lower levels. They should, certainly, occur all round the 
contact of the granite (the euritic granite) and the slate mass." 

" There is no reason to doubt that certain of the Cow Flat ore 

deposits will continue as quartz deposits to considerable depths. 

Whether the average tenor in value, as proved near the surface, will be 

maintained, the Writer has grave doubts, since wolfram and bismuth are 

doubtless amenable to the laws of secondary concentration, much as are 

silver, gold, and copper. In that case the richest values may be expected 

to occur in the upper two hundred feet."| 

Mr. Conder noted as strange the absence of sulphide minerals, even 

bismuthinite, but they wei-e hardly to be expected at such a shallow depth. 

The deepest workings (presumably at the Bismuth Mine) then not exceeding 

100 feet, and this at a low angle. Even at the present depth of 350 feet 

the vertical level of the face is only about 150 feet below the surface. 

Moreover, sulphide minerals do occur of bismuth, cobalt, and molybdenum ; 
but the first-mentioned is more commonly in the form of native bismuth. 

The Writer is disinclined to agree with the views expressed as to secondary 
enrichment of the wolfram, preferring to regard it as essentially a primary 
mineral at i'orrington. 

• Proc. Colorado Sci. Soc., IX, 1909, p. 138. + The Minintr Journal, LXXVIII, 1905, pp. 170, 171. 
I Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1905-9, VlII, Pt. 3, pp. 250, 251. 



48 

So far as his observation has extended, the common alteration of wolfram 
to tungstic, or wolfram, ochre — a soft, earthy, greenish, grey or yellow 
substance — (WO3) is very superficial indeed ; and though soluble in caustic 
alkalies, is insoluble in acids, which are more likely accompaniments of 
vadose circulation in an area of acid rocks. This insoluble product (in acids) 
is therefore unlikely to have caused enrichment at slightly lower levels, nor 
is there any evidence of such in any of the Avorkings so far opened. Rich 
bunches of wolfram occur at all levels, in some cases apparently isolated in 
the ore-rock, but usually — as at the New Hope lodes — in well-defined joint 
fissures, or near the junction of the sedimentaries. 

In many instances the wolfram is disseminated in very fine particles 
through the lode-rock for considerable distances ; and the bismuth — when 
present in appi-eciable quantities — is also frequently as well distributed. 
This metal occurs as native bismuth, oxide and carbonate ; the two latter as 
the result of oxidation of the first. 

Scheelite, moreover, is regarded by well-known authorities as an alteration 
product of wolfram. A. Moncrieff Finlayson states that : — 

"Specimens of wolfram and scheelite in contact generally show the 

scheelite spreading along the cleavage planes of the wolfram, and 

replacing the darker mineral. This appears to be one of the chief modes 

of formation of scheelite in the Cornish veins." * 

Dana, on the other hand, regards the converse as more common. However, 

so far as the Writer is aware, the Torrington deposits afford no evidence of 

either change. 

Regarding the wolfram and bismuth as primary associates of the final 
aplitic phase of granitic intrusion, the chief factor of joermanence naturally is 
the vertical and horizontal extent of such intrusions. 

Quarrying has already revealed that the quartz-topaz ore-rock occurs not 
only as bosses and vei'tical dykes, but also in the nature of sills or sheet-like 
masses in the sedimentary rocks. The latter dip at low angles or follow 
wavy undulations. The undulatory courses of these sills probably result in 
apparently isolated contiguous hummocky outcrops ; the underground con- 
nections of which future mining developments may reveal. 

The following ideal section based on Hawkins' Quarries illustrates this 
probable mode of occurrence : — 



Outcrop N°l Quarry 







Fig. 6. — Ideal section of probable sill-like occurrence of ore-rocks in sedimentary rocks, 

Torrington. 

A — Sedimentary rocks, locally known as " trap." 

B — Aplitic ore-rock, locally known as " quartzite." 



* Economic Oeology, V, No. 8, December, 1010, p. 721. 



Plate VIII. 




Mrs. J. Shannessy. 

Tungsten near Torrington. 

Rockvale Wolfram Company. Entrance througli Sedimentary Rocks to Second 
Quarry in Hawkins' Section. 



49 

At Hawkins' Lease (M.L. 18), in the Rockvale Companj^'s property, 
■the ore-sheet exposed in the principal quarry dips towards the new quarry 
■on the north, and will probably connect with it in the manner depicted. 

At No. 2 Quarry, in M.L. 75 of the Torrington Wolfi-am Proprietary, 
similar wavy undulations of the ore-sheet are exposed in a most instructive 
manner. 

In some, at least, of the principal workings the ore-rock will be found to 
take this form of huge sheets or sills ; hence passing through them vertically 
need not cause apprehension if the true form is realised. 

It is, moreover, probable that lower sills may be encountered which have 
no surface exposures. 

Though in one direction these sills will be found to taper out, in the other 
they should be traceable to their source in the granite massif. Denudation, 
however, is a factor to be considered in this connection, for it may have 
caused breaks in continuity of the ore-sheet by removal of exposed areas 
originally forming ridges above the general level. The greater hardness, and 
therefore resistance, of the quartzose ore-i"ock,however, circuuiscribes the effect 
of denudation, save unrler exceptional conditions. 

The Writer is of opinion that the persistence or permanence of the main 
ore-bodies is assured, though underground mining will probably have to take 
the place of quarrying where the overburden of sedimentary rocks is too 
great for economic removal. The quantity of lodestuff is undoubtedly very 
extensive, but the profitable proportion is a matter for adequate testing. 
The grade, at best, is low ; hence success depends on the scale of operations, 
and utilization of labour-saving appliances. 

It is to be hoped that the duplication of the Rockvale Wolfram 
Company's crushing and concentrating plant at Black Swamp will definitely 
ascertain the minimum grade which can be profitably attacked under such 
•conditions ; of course relying on stable market values for the standard 
product. 

In regard to the permanence of scheelite deposits at Hillgrove, whilst the 
individual lenses and thin veins of ore are extremely capricious in occurrence, 
there is no reason to doubt their persistence at great depths. In fact, 
Nature has already demonstrated this by expo.sing scheelite deposits in 
the sides and bed of Baker's Creek Gorge to a depth of l,iOO to 1,600 feet, or 
more. If the denuded material was i-estored it is more than probable 
that the fissures carrying the scheelite would outcrop at the surface, like 
those in the Freehold, and at Metz on opposite sides of the gorge. 

This view is strengthened by the wonderful persistence of the extremely 
thin Smith's Gold Reef, in Baker's Creek Gorge, which outcrops about 
1,500 feet below the level of Hillgrove, and which has been followed down in 
the Baker's Creek and Proprietary Mines for 2,000 feet, and still persists 
strongly. 



50 



YII.— DESCRIPTIVE REGISTER OF NEW SOUTH WALES 
TUNGSTEN MINES AND OCCURRENCES. 

Alhury, 4 miles N.W. — A sample of quartz containing wolfram purporting 
to come from this locality was assayed in the Departmental Laboratory 
in 1910, with the following result : — 

10-45— Tungstic trioxide 16 per cent. 

Alick Steyne Creek, Parish Highland Home, County Gough. G. W. Card 
records wolfram and scheelite from this locality to the north of Emmaville.* 

Armidale District. — (See Hillgrove and Gara Falls.) 

Back Creek. — 26 miles from Armidale, and 7 miles from Birlong Station. — 
Wolfram in quartz veins traversing granite. 

Barraba and Manilla (between). — Portions 134, 135, Parish Wilson, 
county Darling ; also in Portions 42, 43, and 55, Parish Eumur, in the same 
county. 

Barrier Ranges. — (See Broken Hill, Purnamoota, and Waukeroo.) 

BpIVs Claim. — The Gulf. E. C. Andrevvs states that the lode worked in this 
claim occurs in granite : — " Wolfram occurs in tissure containing abundant 
secondary mica (sericite), monazite, &c. ; other small claims exist in the 
neighbourhood."! 

Berridale, \\ miles south 20° west of. — Portion 123, Parish Coolamatong, 
County Wallace. 

In 1891 Mr. Warden Love reported that permits to search for wolfram on 
W. Avfry's conditional lease at Berridale, in the Parish of Coolamatong, 
were granted to Messrs. E. P. Margoschis, D. Murray, and N. Lockyer. 
The Warden also stated that a " broken outcrop of quartz, containing 
wolfram, was traced for 100 yards, running east and west. An assay of 
a small sample yielded 69 per cent, of tungstic acid."t 

In 1893 a sample of wolfram in quartz was assayed for 54-35 per cent.§ 

In 1894 a local syndicate (Margoschis and party) was formed to further 
prospect the lode. In the following year aid was granted from the Prospect- 
ing Vote, but the site was abandoned without anything of importance being 
discovered. II 

In connection with a further application for aid to prospect (08-2,703), it 
is recorded that three shafts had been sunk following the underlays of three 
separate veins of quartz in granite, carrying a little wolfram as isolated 
crystals in the quartz. The shafts ranged from 16 to 20 feet in depth, and 
aVjout a chain apart. 

Aid was granted to sink a vertical shaft 100 feet, to cut two of these 
veins on the underlay ; neither, however, were intersected at that depth. 
Further aid was granted to cross-cut 75 feet southerly from 76-feet level. 
A reef was .struck but carrying no wolfram. 

In 1907 the site was examined by the Writer. Two thin quartz veins had 
V>een opened by trenching, and a shaft — probably the aided one referred to 
above — sunk between the veins. 

The southern vein strikes N. 80° W., and dips N. 10° E. at 55 to 60 
fjegrees ; and is from 3 to 6 inches thick. Opened for several chains by 
trenching. Wolfram occurs very sparsely disseminated in the quartz. 

•Record* Geol. Survey N.S. Wale«, 1907, VIII, Pt. 3, p. 3. +Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N.S. Wales, 

1904, p. 143. } Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N.S. Wales, 1891, p. 91. § /Wd., 1893, p. 50. U Ibid., 

189S, p. 67. 



51 

The northern vein, about 90 feet north, strikes N. 85° "W., and dips 
]S'. 5° E. at 75°. Thickness about 3 inches. Opened by trench about 50 
feet long and 18 feet deep. Wolfram occurring sparingly as in the south 
vein. 

About 50 feet south of the deep trench the shaft has been sunk in granite. 

On the western strike the vein has been opened at intervals for several 
chains beyond the deep trench. In numerous places in the vicinity of the 
veins shallow prospecting has been carried on for small " makes " of ore, 
which wei'e dollied and hand-dressed. The output is not ascertainable, but 
it was evidently small. 

Payable deposits are unlikely at this particular site. 

Big Lode. — About 150 yards east of Toohey's Lode, Pulletop, Parish 
Burrandana, County Mitchell. 

Discovei'ed by M. Toohey about 1904, worked intermittently since. 
Strike N. and S. ; dip slight to east. Opened for about 300 yai'ds by a trench 
10 feet deep. Wolfram occurs in a wliite quartz reef from 1 to 2 ft. 3 in. 
thick, at intervals of about 60 feet. Rich patches of coarsely crystallized 
wolfram occur in bunches but cut out rapidly in depth. About 4 tons of 
di-essed wolfram obtained up to September, 1910. So far tin has not been 
found in association. The granite walls are well defined, and micaceous. 

About half a chain east a small quartz reef containing wolfram has been 
opened, but unpayable so far as tested. This reef splits up in places, and 
dies ouL in others. 

About 3 chain!! east of the Big Lode is another quartz reef, 6 inches 
thick, which carries both wolfram and tinstone, the latter mineral being 
■confined to the walls. Strike N. and S. Dip east. 

Occasional rich bunches of wolfram are found in this portion of the 
PuUetop Tin and Wolfram field, associated with quartz. One block of pure 
wolfram weighed 1^ cwt. The occurrence of iron oxide is locally regarded 
as indicative of wolfi'am : in some bunches it partly replaces the latter near 
the surface owing to decomposition. 

A few of the I'eefs or lodes were found to depart from the usual meridional 
strike as much as 20 degrees. 

Secondary silicification has induced an appearance of gradual transition 
from normal granite to quartz in some of the lodes ; the alteration effected 
extending into the walls for at least a foot. 

Bingara. — ^An assay sample purporting to come from near Bingara was 
assayed in 1893 for 72"46 percent, of tungstic acid. 

Black Swamp. — Portion 397, Parish Rockglen, County Clive. David, in 
1 887, mentioned wolfram in this locality in veinstone consisting of cellular 
quartz, with nests of tourmaline and chlorite, with small bunches of tinstone. 
Average width, \}j inches.* 

(See also Chinaman's Lode, Roberts' Lode, Smith's Lode.) 

Bombala. — (See Mila.) 

Bourke'8 Creek. — (See Pulletop.) 

Bradshaw's Lode. — The Gulf. About \ mile east of Hutton's Lode ; width, 
10 inches ; opened to a depth of 50 feet in 1909. 

Described by E. C. Andrews, as a " true fissure lode, but very narrow. 
Gangue-chlorite, secondary mica, tourmaline, monazite, (fee. The monazite 
occurs as lumps and grains."! 

» Geol. Veg. Creek, 1887, p. 121. t Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 



52 

Recently a sample of crystallized wolfram from this mine was presented t» 
the Mining Museum. The crystals are described by G. W. Card as of pro- 
nounced tabular habit, slightly curved, and overlying one another in a radial 
manner, the interspaces being occupied with creamy clay containing a little 
bismuth carbonate. 

Brickii-ood Lode. — Alick Steyne's Gully, Parish Highland Home, County 
Gough. Strike N. 50° E. Opened by shallow cuts in granite. 

Brorcn's Claim Lode, — The Gulf. Described by E. C. Andrews as wolfram 
in quartz, associated with secondary mica, tourmaline, etc., in granite. 

Bryden's Lode. — Red Hill, M.L. 69, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive, near 
head of Dingo Gully. 

Discovered about 1904. Opened by cut 15 x 15 x 8 feet (about). Occurs 
in biotite granite in part porphyritic. Lode strikes apparently N. 80° E. 
Lodestufi' usual glassy aplitic or granular quartz-topaz rock, with small vugs- 
lined with crystals of quartz and mica. Twenty-five tons treated in March, 
1911, at the' New Hope Battery for 5 cwt. 2 qrs. V2 lb. of concentrates, 
equal to about 1-1 per cent. 

Bundarra. — A sample received from this locality (described as 25 miles 
S.W. of Tingha) in 1891, consisting of wolfram associated with arsenide and 
arseniate of iron in quartz, yielded 44-94 per cent, of tungstic acid.* 

Bnrrowa District. — Two raining leases for wolfram were applied for in this 
division in 1890. Samples received for assay from 2 miles from Frogmore 
yielded 51-67 and 62-67 per cent, of tungstic acid.f Both scheelite and 
wolfram occur in the neighbourhood of Frogmore, but prospecting failed to 
discover these minerals in payable proportion. 

Butler Tin Zorfe.— Portions 173, 174, Ac, Parish Highland Home, County 
Gough. 

Wolfi-am, frequently in well-developed tabular crystals, occurs on the 
hanging- wall side of the Butler tin lode, but no attempt has yet been made ta 
separate it. 

Carter' n Back Lode.— On east fall of Carter'.s Hill, If mile N.W. of 
Pulletop, Parish Burrandana, County ^Mitchell. 

Examined by E. C. Saint-Smith in September, 1910, who describes it as 
a white quartz lode up to 18 inches thick ; strike N. and S. ; dip slight to 
west. Opened many years ago at intervals for about 40 chains ; and by 
two shafts 30 and 50 feet deep and 210 feet apart. In these shafts the 
lode averaged about a foot in thickness in granite. Wolfram occurs in 
shoots which are reported to cut out in depth. 

Garter's Hill Lode.— On summit of Carter's Hill, M.Ls. 9 and 10, Parish 
Burrandana, County Mitchell, If miles north-west of Pulletop. 

Discovered several years ago ; intermittently worked since by J. Toohey, 
who sank ten .shallow holes along the strike in a distance of 300 feet. Patches 
of wolfram occur in a white (juartz lode in granite ; about 3 cwt. of coarse 
crystallized wolfram obtained. About half a chain east a small quartz vein 
was openetl containing crystallized tinstone and wolfram. Examined by 
E. C. Saint-Smith in September, 1910. 

Carters Lale.— Canter's Hill, J mile north of Pulletop Creek, Parish 
Burrandana, County Mitchell. 

Discovered by Carter in 1904, who sank 50 feet in a white quartz lode 
8 inches thick. E. C. Saint-Smith examined the locality in September, 1910, 
and reported that the wolfram was replaced by marcassite at the bottom of 
the shaft. The lode has been opened at intervals for a length of 20 chains 

• Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. 8. Wales, 1891, p. 62. t ^Wd-. 1892, p. 51. 



53 

by shallow trenches. Small bunches of wolfram occurred in isolated patches. 
Strike north and south, with slight westerly underlay, in granite. Several 
small parallel leaders have also been opened, though occasional large lumps 
of wolfram were found (one weighing 80 lb.) ; the work was not profitable, y 

Casino. — A sample, purporting to come from this district, was assayed in 
1895, for a return of 75-3 percent, of tungstic acid.* 

(Probably Scheelite.). 

Cathcart, 7 miles North. — Rubbly wolfi-am, yielded on assay in 1910 : — 
10-338 Tungstic trioxide 58'48 per cent 

Cemetery Creek Lode. — On J. Newley's Annual Lease, 1| miles N.W. of 
Wilson's Downfall, Parish Ruby, County Buller. 

Discovered about 1898 by Stalling and party, who worked it for some 
months ; since intermittently prospected by others. The wolfram occurs in 
a quartz vein, about 8 inches thick, traversing coarse granite, the quartz 
being bounded by narrow selvages of greisen, which is also traversed in 
places by thin quartz veins. Strike of lode, N. 70° E. ; dip slight to S. 20° E. 
The wolfram occurs mostly in the centre of the quartz vein, but a little also 
in the greisen, where quartz traverses it. A small percentage of sulphide 
and native bismuth are associated. Opened for about 300 feet by shallow 
holes along the crop, the deepest 24 feet. Some rich patches were obtained, 
but mining has ceased for some years. 

C hiiiaman s Lode. — Black Swamp, 5 miles N.W. of Torrington, Parish 
Rock Yale, County Clive. 

Worked to a small extent for many years ; it consists of pegmatite in acid 
granite. The wolfram is mainly crystallized with the biotite, practically 
enveloping individual crystals. The biotite has been developed on either 
side of the original fissure. 

ClapJiam's and Townsend's Lode. — E. C. Andrews states that the occur- 
rences in this site are in granite, and of irregular shape. The wolfram occurs 
in masses of quartz, with excess of amorphous arsenical pyrites and beryls. 
Much secondary mica and a little fluor-spar also occur. f 

Coghlan's Lode. — About 20 chains west of Davison's Lode, The Gulf, 
Parish Muir, County Gough ; strike N. 50° E. ; opened by shaft about 30 feet 
deep. 

Condoholin. — (See Mt. Tallebung.) 

Coppahella. — (See Mu.sgrave's and Gifford Mines.) 

Copeton. — (See Pepp's Flat.) 

Cosgrove's Lode. — Between Dixon's and Mossman's Gullies, Parish Ruby^ 
County Buller, near Wilson's Downfall, Stanthorpe-road, about 6 miles 
N.W. of the former. 

Discovered by T. Cosgrove about June, 1907, and worked about a year. 

Wolfram and tinstone occur at this site, so far as the limited provino^ 
reveals, in bunches or " blows," and not in defined lodes. When examined 
by the Writer in October, 1908, a few shallow openings had been made in 
three separate outcrops. The most western consisted of a large quartz blow 
which had previously been quarried for road metal. Wolfram occurs very 
sparingly in scattered plates in the quartz. 

About 2 chains east two other outcrops had been superficially tested, the 
southern yielding a few patches of wolfram, the matrix being aplitic granite. 
Clo.se by a tin lode was cut, from which nbout 3 cwt. of dressed tinstone was 
obtained by hand spalling and jigging. 

* Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 189.5, p. 67. t Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 



54 

A shaft sunk to 25 feet in the best wolfram show passed into tin-bearing 
lodestuff at bottom ; the difficulty of separation is reported to have prevented 
further effort. The wolfram lodestuflF was roasted, crushed with spalling 
hammers, and jigged in a roughly extemporised jig. Thi-ee tons of wolfram 
were reported to have been obtained to October, 1908. 

Cow Flat. — (See Cow Flat and New Hope Mines.) 

Crowe's Claim. — On north boundary of Portion 88, Parish Rock Vale, 
Count}' Clive, about 10 cliains east of Elliot Bros,' Wolfram Mine at Dingo 
Gully, and on same line of lode. Site was originally prospected by T. 
Johnson, about 1904, to a depth of 35 feet, when the ore pinched out. Four 
tons of wolfram are reported to have been obtained. 

Coic Flat Wolfram and Bismuth Lode. — M.L. 203, Parish Rockvale, 
<I?ounty Clive. 

This mine was held and worked by the original Wentworth Proprietary 
Company (now Rockvale Wolfram Company, Ltd.), but was abandoned 
in favour of the new scene of operations at Black Swamp — where the 
machinery has been incorporated in the new plant. 

The lode was worked by open cut and shaft — extending a horizontal 
-distance of about 300 feet at the junction of granite and sedimentary rocks. 
The latter consists of claystones and .«andstones. A sample of the granite 
was petrologically examined by G. W. Card, who described it as follows : — 

[7926] 

Granite — biotitic and topaz-bearing. Medium in grain, but pegmatitic 

in jjlacps. 
Colour — light, poor in mica. 

Under the microscope, two micas are seen, and considerable topaz. 
There seems to have been an intermixture of magmas." 

A 10-head battery was erected in connection with this mine ; and concen- 
trates to the value of £2,400 were obtained during 1907.* 

Davison's Lode. — West of Gulf Creek, Parish Muir, County Gough. 
Strike N.E. Shaft sunk about 20 feet in chloritic quartzose lodestufF 
containing wolfram, copper pyrites, and fluor-spar. About 12 tons of ore 
are reported to have been won from this lode. 

Deepwater, 10 miles N.E. — Wolfram in small quantity occurs in this 
locality ; but has not been worked. 

Dine Dine. — (See Mt. Tallabung and Erimeran.) 

Ding Dong. — C. S. Wilkinson recorded wolfram associated with tinstone 
at Ding Dong : — " Near the junction of the slate formation and granite, the 
latter, which is coarse-grained granite, contains irregular-shaped masses of 
greisen rock, composed of quartz and mica in varying proportions. These 
masses appear to have been formed by segregation."! Ding Dong is 
.situated between Deepwater and the Great Dividing Range. 

Dvago GvMy. — (See Elliott's and McMullen's lodes.) 

Dodger I^ode. — On north boundary of Portion 92, Parish Rock Vale, 
County Clive, clo.se to south-west head of Dingo Gully. 

Discovered about June, 1910. Strike E. and W. Held by J. McMullen, 
on same line and 2 chains from Welcome Stranger Mine. Opened by shaft 
to a depth of 20 feet in August, 1910. Wolfram occurs in chlorite and 
•quartz in coarse lumps. About half a ton of clean ore obtained to date 
mentioned. 

Donohoe's Lode. — Alick Steyne Gully, Parish Highland Home, County 
Gough. 

• Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1907, p. 65. f IHd. 1888, p. 161. 



55 

Discovered by Donohoe Bros, in November, 1908. Strike N. 35° E. 
Lode channel about 2 feet wide. Veinstone mostly quartz, but passing 
into quartzose-chlorite with depth. Opened to 22 feet from surface in 
February, 1909, and driven 20 feet north-easterly. Wolfram showing in the 
outcrop for 40 or 50 feet. Richest pockets in soft chloritic lodestuff. About 
2^ tons of clean wolfram extracted to date mentioned. 

Duckmaloi Creek, Oberon District. — Wolfram in large pieces is recorded 
from Duckmaloi Creek,* probably identical with Kirk and Dwyer's find near 
Oberon. (See Oberon.) 

Dundee. — (See Hogue's Creek.) 

Easons Find. — (See Mt. Tallabung and Erimeran.) 

Elliott and Hare's Lode. — Parish Bates, County Clive, on divide between 
Bob's Swamp and Moleyard Creeks. Discovered by C E. Elliott and James 
Hore about February, 1911. 

Quartzose lodestuff containing wolfram and carbonate and oxide of 
bismuth, in biotite granite country. A small oval outcrop about 1 chairt in 
diameter has been opened in two places to a depth of a couple of feet. The 
metallic ores appeared to be well distributed, forming good concentrating 
material. Too little work yet performed to allow of an estimate being made 
as to extent of deposit. The distance from the nearest milling plant is about 
3| miles in a direct line. 

Elliott Bros.' Woljrdm Lode. — On north boundary of Portion 90, Parish 
Rock Vale, County Clive, in south-west branch of Dingo Gully. Discovered 
by Elliott Bros, in March, 1910, by following trail of shed wolfram whilst 
boring Dingo Gully for tin-dredging purposes. The so-called " bung " 
occurs in a well-defined line of lode striking about N. 85° E., and traceable 
for a considerable distance. The lode was opened on the east side of Dingo 
Gully several years previously. 

Elliott's " bung " was decidedly the richest deposit, so far as proved, yet 
discovered in the State. At the time of inspection (August, 1910) the shaft 
was 40 feet deep, and the ore was solid and strong at that level. The cap of 
the lode, which strikes across Dingo Gully, was covered by 5 feet of alluvial. 
In the decomposed cap two 50 lb. blocks of pure wolfram were obtained at 
9 feet from surface ; below this a 5 cwt. slug of pure ore was obtained in 
the soft channel filling. Eight tons of clean wolfram were obtained in 
8 feet of sinking in the shaft. To the 5th August 9 tons had been 
despatched, and several tons were at grass. 

The lodestufi" consists of chlorite, felspar and quartz, with wolfram in 
massire pockets. Beryl is also present in acicular ci'ystals. The quartz is 
relatively scarce, occurring chiefiy as crystals (white and smoky) in vugs. 
A few specks of purple fluor-spar are occasionally seen. Cassiterite occurs 
rarely, chiefly in vugs. 

This shaft was continued to about 50 feet. The wolfram is reported to 
have cut out at about 45 feet. Altogether, 15 tons were obtained from this 
shaft. No driving has been done along the lode, though other shoots may 
occur. 

Elsmore Hill. — Parish Anderson, County Gough. A wolfram lode in 
granite in this hill, was opened by P. Grifiiths to a depth of 15 feet. Then by 
J. Botteril, who extracted about 1 ton of wolfram in 1902, whilst the Union 
Tin Mining Company held the land. The site being on the eastern fall 
of Elsmore Hill towards the Macintyre River. 

* Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1903, VH, Pt. 3, p. 219. 



56 

Reopened early in 1910 by H. B. Smith, of Inverell, 1 ton 2 qrs. 14 lb. of 
^volfl■am being obtained from a shoot 12 inches by 2 inches, which is reported 
to have cut out at 30 feet. 

Wolfram is sparingly disseminated through quartz veins and in miarolitic 
■cavities in the Elsmore granite — usually associated with smoky quartz 
crystals. 

Emmaville District. — In 1887 David referred to the occurrence of wolfram 
And scheelite in this district whilst describing the tin deposits : — 

"An important vein of wolfram occurs on the Mole Tableland, 13^^ 
miles north of Emmaville in a direct line, but 21 miles distant by road. 
(Parish Eock Vale, County Clive. — J. E.G.) The point, at which the 
reef was observed to be rich in wolfram, bears west 36° south from the 
south-west corner of Portion 407, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive, a 
quarter of a mile distant, and lies just outside the boundary of this 
parish, in the north-east corner of Parish Flagstone, County Gough. 
The vein is, in places, from 10 to 12 yards wide, though probably not 
metalliferous throughout its entire width. Owing to the reef being 
covered over with sandy soil, it is impossible to ascertain, by mere 
inspection, the average width or length of its outcrop, though surface 
indications favour the supposition that the reef is a strong one. The 
strike is about N. 40° E. As far as I am aware, this reef has never 
been prospected, and it is situated partly on Crown lands." 
If this lode has not received attention of late years it is worthy of further 
prospecting, as some very rich bunches have recently been found in the vicinity. 
(.See Elliott Bros, and the Dodger Lodes.) 

"Wolfram also occurs at the Gulf Main vein. Hall's Grampians, Lee's 
Gully, and the Planet Mine, near the head of the Nine-mile Creek, 
Parish Wellington Vale, County Gough. 

" Scheelite has been found in small quantities at McDonald's veins, on 
the Glen Creek. The mineral is honey-coloured and translucent."* 
Erimeran Range. — At south end, about 9 miles from Erimeran head 
Citation, wolfram was discovered in this locality by Mr. George Eason about 1890 
at the time of the gold discovery at Mount Allen. In 1892 several assays 
made in the Departmental Laboratory from the Mount Hope district — which 
broadly defined the tin and wolfram localities — yielded from 62-57 to 72*2 
per cent, of tungsten trioxide. 

Eason opened his discovery to a depth of about 14 feet. A local syndicate 
(J. Lynch and party) took up a lease in May, 1896, and sank several shafts : 
No. 1, to a depth of 50 feet, was driven 15 feet. Shallow shafts were sunk 
along the outcrop for a distance of 8 or 9 chains, which is reported to strike 
north and south. The occurrence is in quartz veins in slate. The largest 
piece of wolfram ore weighed over 1 cwt. Three tons were despatched (not 
concentrated), but no returns of this early consignment are available. 
Essington, Rockley District. — (See Mt. Sromlo.) 
Eurambie. — (See Mt. Tallabung.) 
Fielder's Hill. — (See Torrington Ore Company.) 

Flynn Bros.' Lode. — The Gulf. Described by E. C. Andrews in 1904 
as a : — 

"True fissure in granite. Ore. — Wolfram in lumps, as much as 5-lb. 
weight specimens. Garujue. — Quartz and pegmatite (?). Workings. — 
Two shafts, 20 feet and 35 feet."t 
Frognuyre. — (See also Burrowa.) 

• Oeol. Ve». Creek, 1887, pp. 161-2. t Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 



57 

In 1906 Inspector Smith examined a quai-tz vein in slate, carrying a little 
wolfram and scheelite, 4 miles east of Frogmore, on Reed's Flat road^ 
16 miles from Burrowa, Portion 70, Parish Alton, County King. The vein 
had been opened by shafts and trenches for about 300 feet along the strike^ 
The thickness varied from 15 inches to 18 inches. 

Aid was granted to sink the 50 feet shaft a further 50 feet. At 60 feet 
the vein was 4 inches thick, carrying a little wolfram. At 75 feet it was. 
but 2 inches, with a little wolfram and scheelite. 

Gar a Falls. — (See Hillgrove.) 

Germanton, 12 miles north of. — Parish Back Creek, County Goulburn. 
Tinstone and scheelite is reported from this locality. 

Glen Eden Lodes (see also Hogue's Creek) P.M. A. 5 and 6, in Portion 88 
E. Newsome's freehold, Hogue's Creek, Parish Boyd, County Gough, about 12 
miles northerly from Glen Innes, near Tenterfield-road. 

Prospected as early as 1883 for wolfram, tin and bismuth,* and at a later 
date for wolfram by C. S. McGlew. A quantity of wolfram was raised by 
E. J. Newsome in 1910, valued at .£700.1 

Reopened in January, 1910, by Sir Albert Gould and others, under the 
name of Glen Eden Mine, and a crushing and concentrating plant erected on 
P.M. A. 5, consisting of a No. 2 Dodge rock-breaker ; 3 ft. 6 in. Huntington 
mill, with screens of 144 holes to the square inch ; and an Imperial Wood- 
bury concentrating table. 

At this site masses and veins of quartz travers-e quartz-porphyry near 
junctions of sedimentary rocks. Greisen is also developed on the margins of" 
the porphyry. Massive quartz, with vugs lined with large crystals, occurs 
prominently in places. The quartzose lode-rock, however, partakes more of 
the character of the Torrington ore-rock, and will prove to be intrusive. 

The metallic minerals — wolfram, molybdenite, and bismuth — are associated 
with the quartz and quartzose rocks, whilst cassiterite occurs in the greisen 
in well-developed crystals. 

Wolfram occurs in irregular, isolated bunches, principally in thin parallel 
plates in quartz, but occasionally in the form of solid slugs. Some of the 
quartz masses are vertical, others dip flatly. At shallow depths, others pinch 
out in the porphyry. The isolated character of the ore bunches, unfortunately,, 
necessitates excessive dead-work in the blanks. 

So far, mining has taken the form of open-cutting and trenching for the 
most part, wherever ore-makes occurred. Wolfram is visible over a con- 
siderable area, and the question to be decided is whether mining on a large 
scale, by quarrying and bulk treatment, can be profitably maintained. It 
would, therefore, be wise to use the existing treatment plant to this end, by 
direct experiment with a given quantity from the most favourable open cuts. 

Hitherto the practice has been to follow the small rich bunches, which may 
remunerate working miners with primitive appliances whilst values are high, 
but which would certainly prove unprofitable to a company. 

Since the present holders took possession, 200 tons of hand-picked and 
dressed ore were crushed and concentrated for a return of 7 tons of con- 
centrates, averaging about 64 per cent, of tungstic oxide. 

Bismuth is present, to the extent of 5 per cent, in one parcel of " seconds " 
assayed, but the average in the total concentrates is not commercially 
regarded. Molybdenite is also insignificant. Cassiterite is prominent in 
one small vein, which could be profitably extracted so far as exposed, but its. 
persistence is unproven. 

* C. S. Wilkinson, Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1883, p. 154. t Ibid., 1910, p. 57 



58 

In 1883, C. S. "Wilkinson described tin, bismuth, and wolfram in the Glen 
Innes district in the following terms : — 

" About 12 miles north from Glen Innes, and about one mile east of 
the Tenterfield-road, several bismuth and tin-bearing quartz veins have 
oeen discovei-ed. (Glen Eden. — J.E.C.) These occur in a different 
manner from those of Kingsgate. They form irregular veins and masses 
of quartz traversing a fine-grained micaceous felsitic rock, which is 
surrounded by altered sedimentary rocks. In one place this rock for a 
length of about 100 yards and a width of 15 yards is traversed by a net- 
work of quartz veins. A small hole has been sunk here, and the stone 
taken from it contains bismuth ores, cassiterite, molybdenite, arsenical 
pyrites, and wolfram. In another place, about 100 yards from that last 
named, a mass of hard crystalline quartz, in size at the surface about 
40 feet by 20 feet, has been opened for a few feet in depth. It contains 
bismuth and tin ores, together with a large quantity of wolfram."* 
Granite Springs. — Parish Waukeroo, County Yancowinna, Barrier Range. 
O. S Wilkinson recorded wolfram in a quartz reef, near the Granite Springs 
tin lodes, t 

Gulf Creek Lode. — Portion 23, Parish Muir, County Gough. David 
recorded wolfram in small quantities associated with the Gulf Creek tin lodes. 
Ilnll's Grampians. — Portion 101, Parish Strathbogie North, County 
Gough. The occurrence of wolfram was first noted in this locality by G. H. 
Gower, Mining Registrar, in 1875. + In 1887, David recorded a vein in the 
a,bove portion from 2 to 3 feet wide ; striking N. 63° E., and underlying 
N. 27° W. The veinstone being friable cellular quartz containing arsenical 
pyri'es, tinstone and wolfram. § 

Hawkins' Lode. — Oakey Creek, close to Torrington — Silent Grove road. 
Strike N. 50° E., in granite. Width about 14 inches. Lodestuff 
mostly quartz ; paitly as comby crystals, partly banded. Opened to shallow 
■depths in two places. Wolfram showing in north-eastern opening. Picked 
sample yielded : — 

,, (,iQ Tungstic acid 9-55 per cent. 

i.i-Ji6- j^Q bismuth. 

Ilefernan Bros.', Wolfram Lode. — M.L. 52, Parish Highland Home, County 
Oough. 

Discovered about 1906. Proved by shallow shafts and trenches for a 
length of about 400 feet. Deepest shaft 40 feet. Strike, N. 30° E., in 
granite. Lodestuff at south end soft decomposed micaceous rock, with vugs 
containing quartz, felspar, and mica crystal aggregates, and occasional prisms 
of beryl. Wolfram occurs in bunches — not continuous. At north end hard 
aplite makes, with a little wolfram leanly distributed. The wolfram won so 
far has V)een obtained in the decomposed southein portion, usually as slugs, 
also with quartz crystals representing vugs. 

Lode partly woiked by Heffernans', partly on tribute. About 12 tons 
of dressed wolfram obtained to March, 1911. 

J/ogue's Creek. — (See Glen Eden.) 

Hughes' Wolfram Lode.— On west side of Wilson's Downfall- Stanthorpe 
road near Amosfield ; 1 mile north-west of Wilson's Downfall. Parish Ruby, 
County Buller. 

Discovered about 1898; worked mainly by Rees Hughes in 1907-8 for 
about eight months, who opened it by a trench 40 feet long and 9 feet at 
deejKist. 

■ Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. 8. Wales, 1888, p. 154. t Ihid 1837, p. 143. % Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines 
N. S. Wales, 1875, p. 108. § Geol. Veg. Ck.. 1887, p. 127. 



59 

Examined in 1910 by E. C. Saint-Smith, who described the wolfram as 
occurring in a bluish-white quartz vein, rarying from 8 to 15 inches in width, 
which splits and reunites repeatedly, small lenticular " horses " of aplite 
being enclosed by the quartz. Wolfram occurs in patches, principally in the 
central portion of the vein. It is associated with a little iron and copper 
pyrites, metallic bismuth, bismuth carbonate, and flakes of molybdenite. 

Thin veins of quartz extend from the main vein into the aplite. The 
quartz is crystallized in part. The lode traverses aplite for the most part, 
but where it passes through coarse granite it is bordered by micaceous 
granite. The lode has been opened by small potholes for a length of about 
600 feet. 

Hughes is reported to have obtained about 18 cwt. of dressed wolfram 
during his operations. 

Huttotis Wolfram Lode. — West of Gulf Creek, The Gulf, Parish Muir, 
County Gough. 

Strike N. 60° E. Opened for a length of about 4 chains. Fluor-spar 
conspicuous, also chalcopyrite. Occurs in chloritic veinstone with crystalline 
quartz in vugs and small veins. Width from a thread to 2 feet. 

Opened to 60 feet. Output, 4 to 5 tons dressed wolfram. Patchy. 

Jingellic, Upper Murray River. Parish Jingellic, County Goulburn. 

E. F. Pittman, in 1881, recorded the presence of wolfram, in the Jingellic 
tin-lodes which consisted of quartz veins traversing granite. The presence 
of wolfram and the failure to realise on the concentrates containing this 
mineral, was believed to have operated against the prospects of the tin-iield. 
According to local report, 9 tons of mixed concentrates obtained during 
early operations failed to obtain sale. 

Lankey's Creek. — (See Mt. Gilford.) 

Lindner's Wolfram Lode. — Adjoining west boundary of Portion 13, Parish 
Burrandana, County Mitchell, on south side of Carter's Hill ; 1| miles N.W. 
of Pulletop. 

Discovered by August Lindner about 1904, and worked for about twelve 
months. Opened for about one-quarter mile in length. Strike N. and S. 
The wolfram occurs in patches in a white cjuartz-lode in micaceous granite ; 
the width of which varies from 6 inches to 1 foot ; but much split up into 
thin veins. Lindner also opened a small quartz leader carrying wolfram near 
the east boundary of Portion 13, about 5 chains north of Bourke's Creek. 

Lode Hill Tin and Wolfram Lodes. — Queensland Border. M.Ls. 21, 22. 
Parish Ruby, County Buller, 3^ miles W.N.W. of Wilson's Downfall. 
Country — coarse acid granite with aplite dykes, traversed by a great number 
of small quartz veins and micaceous (or greisen) bands, in which occasional 
payable patches of tinstone and wolfram occur. 

Opened by several shafts and a considerable amount of trenching, but the 
total output of tin and wolfram is insignificant. 

Most of the veins strike N.E., but a few strike N.W. Messrs. Sampson 
and Cokehill obtained 1 ton of dressed wolfram and 7 cwt. of mostly 
coarse tinstone from one of these lodes. Their width varies from that of a 
knife-blade to 3 feet. Lode matrix quartz (frequently highly crystallized) 
and micaceous granite. 

The quartz veins on Lode Hill are nearly all found to split into a number 
of smaller veins at a shallow depth. In one case a flat vein — a few inches 
in thickness — yielded 3 tons of coarsely-crystallized tin ore. Several large 
lumps of solid wolfram have been found on the hill. The ore from these 
lodes was crushed at Lode Creek Battery (Queensland). 



60 

Louis' Wolfram Lode. — East side of Bald Hill ; half a mile north of 
Bourke's Creek ; Parish Burrandana, County Mitchell ; 2 miles N.W. from 
Pulletop Homestead. 

Discovered by Carter about 1904. Strike N. and S. Dip slightly east. 
Width 2 feet. Opened by shaft to 50 feet ; width reported constant. A 
rich shoot of wolfram was met with at surface, which cut out rapidly in 
depth. Lode material — white quartz, in granite country. Walls well defined, 
-and altered to greisen for about G inches from lode. 

About 2 chains south of the shaft Louis Garrard opened a trench for 
■50 feet along the outcrop to a depth of 10 feet, from which he obtained 
5 cvvt. of coarsely-crystallized wolfram. 

From the hanging wall side of the trench John Toohey obtained a small 
•quantity of coarse tinstone in a clay seam. Attempts to work this lode were 
also made by C. McLeod and Theodore Lindner, but operations by them 
ceased in 1907. It is now intermittently worked by John Toohey. It 
has been traced for upwards of half a mile. Several vugs, with crystal- 
lized quartz, wolfram, and occasionally tinstone, were found. 

McAlister's Lode. — At head of Herding Yard Creek, on north side of 
McPherson's Bange, close to Queensland border ; Parish Ruby, County 
Buller ; 2^ miles W.N.W. of Wilson's Downfall. 

Discovered by S. McAlister about 1906, and worked by him for a few 
months. Strike N. 80° E. Dip slight to westward ; in coarse even-grained 
biotite granite, the biotite being usually replaced by muscovite immediately 
adjoining the reef. 

The gradation from the country to the i-eef being in the following order : — 
Coarse, even-grained biotite granite, with pink felspars. 
Fine-grained greisen traversed by thin veins of bluish-white quartz. 
Crystallized clear white and bluish-white quartz, with small lenticular 
bands of greisen, and tabular and acicular crystals of wolfram. 

The wolfram occurs in streaks and bunches through the quartz, at distances 
varving from 15 to 20 feet apart; rich bunches occurred at the surface, but 
not of any great size, only a small amount of wolfram in the aggregate being 
won. Opened for a length of about lUO feet to a depth of 8 feet. 

JfcGeoch's Lode. — Near west boundary of Portion 13, Parish Burrandana, 
County Mitchell, 1^ miles N.W. of Pulletop Homestead, on east fall of 
Carter's Hill. Opened to a depth of 20 feet in the form of an underlay stope, 
wolfi-am and tin being associated in the lode. Aided to sink a further 50 
feet (P.B. 09-669) ; no further report as regards test under aid. 

Examined by E. C. Saint-Smith, Field Assistant, in September, 1910, and 
described as a "white quartz reef, averaging about 16 inches in width, 
carrying copper pyrites, mispickel, iron pyrites, tinstone, wolfram, and zinc 
blende, with much white mica. Country rock — granite. Strike of reef N. 
and S." 

Two chains east of the aided shaft McGeoch opened a white quartz reef 
(18 inches wide) in hard granite, at intervals for a distance of about 200 
yards, by trenches. Numerous slugs of limonite occur. Strike N. and S. 
Lode much split up into thin veins in parts. 

McLeod's Wolfram Ijode. — About 3 miles north of Pulletop Homestead. 

A white quartz reef in granite from 3 to 12 inches wide, but much 
broken. Strike N. and S. Coarse crystalline wolfram occurred, but no tin ; 
about 1 tfm of diessed ore reported to have been obtained. Discovered by 
Chas. Mcl^eod about 1906, and worked by him and others intermittently. 

AfcMullens Pronpeclirxj Claim. — Head of Dingo Gully, Parish Bock Vale, 
County Clive. 



61 

In March, 1911, J. McMullen — one of the original proprietors of the 
Dodger and Welcome Stranger Wolfram Mines, near by — was trailing 
wolfram up a branch of the head-waters of Dingo Gully, above Elliott's 
lode, to locate a lode or " bung." To this end he was stripping the over- 
burden. In the bed-rock the rotted outcrop of an ore channel was located 
in which a small "bung " occurred. A i lb. lump of wolfram was found on 
the bed-rock, as well as prospects of fine shed wolfram ; also large loose 
boulders of the true ore-rock, which must have been transported from an 
outcrop not far away. The wolfram is unworn, and probably has not 
travelled far. 

Mila, 14 miles south of Bombala. — M.L. 110, Parish Mila, County 
Wellesley. Discovered by F. G. H. McLeod, about 1896, on Mr. 
Cochrane's prop-jrty near Mila. 

The wolfram occui's very leanly distributed in a quartz reef striking N.E. 

Mt. Everard Wolfram and Bismuth Mine. — M.Ls. 20 and 25, Parish 
Highland Home, County Gough, about 6 miles from Torrington Post Office. 

Wolfram and bismuth occur in quartz-topaz rock, at the junction of 
sedimentary rocks, the contact striking approximately north-east. Worked 
by an open cut about 60 feet by 30, to a depth of 35 feet in one part. 
Ore-bearing rock has been traced for a length of about 600 feet in M.L. 25. 

In the principal quarry the ore is split by a horse of sedimentary rock, 
blocks of which are engulphed in the intrusive aplite. 

Early in 1909 the mine was let on tribute to Messrs. Williams and Stafford, 
who erected a 10-head stamp battery, with Wilfley table and two Frue 
vanners for concentrating. The power plant consisted of two boilers, one 
a vertical (Hoskins) boiler of 9 h.p., for pumping purposes, and one 
horizontal of 6 h p., for driving two engines for crushing and concentrating 
machinery. This plant was installed for a half-share of the mine. Half 
the net profits to go to the original owners. The A'enture, however, was not 
successful no profit being made ; the mine eventually falling to the 
original owners, Messrs. Payten and Henry. 

I'he Writer again visited Mt. Everard in March, 1911, when a new plant 
was being installed, consisting of a 10-head stamp battery of 9 cwt. stamps, 
7-inch drop, proposed to be run at 100 drops per minute. A 12| h.p. 
Shanks' Caledonian engine (10|-inch cylinder) for battery ; vertical 
Tansye boiler, 8 h.p. ; and 6 h.p. engine for concentrating plant. 

Battery discharge 4 ft. 6 in. by 14|- in. Screens 64 holes per square inch ; 
wire-wove. 

Pulp to pass direct from battery on to two Wilfley tables ; the "cut-off" 
to two Frue vanners. Tailings from vanners to two dead buddies 6 ft. 3 in. 
diameter. Tailings from tables and buddies to pass over blanket tables to 
discharge. 

J/<. Stromlo. — Brisbane Valley, Rockley district, M.L 13, Pai-ish Baring, 
County Westmoreland. Area, 20 acres. 

Taken up by D. S. Todd and party, 24th August, 1906. Shaft sunk in 
quartz lode to 100 feet. Wolfram occurs leanly distributed in the quartz. 
About 1 ton of concentrates were obtained by bucking and sieving. 

Mt. TaJlahuug. — Parish Urarabie East, County Blaxland, about 45 miles 
N.W. of Condobolin. 

Wolfram was discovered by G. Eason in this locality in 1892, several 
assays being made in that year in the Departaiental Laboratory for results 
ranging from 62-5 to 72-2 per cent, of tungsten trioxide. 

In 1910, M. Morrison, senior Field Assistant, visited the locality, and 
supplied the following notes on the mode of occurrence and output : — " The 



62 

wolfram occurs in in-egular bunches in quartz veins at the northern end of 
the Tallabung tin leases. A little tin is disseminated through the quartz also. 
The provings are only superficial, and extend for a distance of over a quarter 
of a mile. From the nature of the workings the ore bunches do not appear to 
have been very extensive. Practically, the whole of the surface ore has 
been worked out. It is stated that about 8 tons of wolfram concentrates 
have been despatched from the field. Mr. J. I'albpt supplied the following 
particulars of ore despatched by him : — 

Tons. cwt. qrs. lb. Assay— W03%. 
2 13 7 66-74 

16 3 16 57-19 

JIulyan.—C.L. 6,079, Parish Kikoira, County Bowling. In 1906 the pre- 
sence of wolfram in small quantity with tin ore, was noted at Mulyan.* 

Musgrave's Wolfram Lode. — On north fall of Mount Gifford, 3 chains east of 
44-feet shaft on Musgrave's Tin Lode, Parish Currajong, County Goulburn, 
near Lankey's Creek. 

Discovered by W. Musgrave in 1897. A small quartz vein, with a little 
wolfram in greisen. Strike N. 30° E. 

Nangeribone, near Nymagee. — Wolfram reported. 

Nevsome's Wolfram Lode. — (See Glen Eden Mines). 

Xew Hope J/iwe.— M.Ls. 22, 23, 200, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive. 
August Beil, Wynyard Chambers, Wynard-square, Sydney. 

Operations commenced about 1903-4. Thirty to forty tons of wolfram 
concentrates shipped annually since ; containing about half to one per cent. 
of bismuth. 

The ore is now won wholly on tribute ; the Company crushing and con- 
centrating for the tributers, and paying an agreed price per ton for the 
concentrates. 

The cru.shing plant consists of a 10-head stamp battery ; weight of stamps,, 
each 800 lb. Drop 4 to 8 inches according to class of ore ; rate, 90 to 1 20 
falls per minute. Wire-wove screens of 64 holes to the square inch. 

Concentrating plant — consists of one Wilfley and one Woodbury table, and 
four Frue vanners. At the present time half this plant — both crushing and 
concentrating — is in use. The pulp from the battery going directly to a 
Wilfley table ; middlings and slimes to Frue vanners. Residues from vanners 
are further treated on a sweep buddle, the centres of which are re-treated 
over Wilfley and vanners. 

Two chains trailing on the buddle close to feed cause ripples and prevent 
guttering ; wolfram concentrates rarely pass the ripples thus formed. 

As will be .seen by the accompanying plan, the New Hope Workings 
embrace a number of independent dykes of the local quartz — topaz lode- 
rock, which intrude sedimentary rocks of Perrao-Carboniferous age, forming 
part of the Mole Tableland inlier. 

The.se dykes strike from N. 15° to N. 65" E. and vary in thickness from 2 
or 3 feet to 25 feet. Though wolfram occurs more or less disseminated, it 
favours the confact joints principally, so much so, that whereas ordinary 
stoping en rnasne failed to prove remunerative, tributers, by following the 
joint fillings, are able to earn a good living. 

In some of the workings the lode-rock lies under a cover of the sedi- 
mentaries and has been cut at depths down to nearly 100 feet from surface. 
Home are more or less vertical, others dip rather flatly. 

• Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N.8. Wftleg, 1906, p. 52. 



PlATE XII. 




Govt. Printer. 



Cobalt near Torrington. 
New Hope Mine (Original Main Workings). 



63 

One very persistent line, known as the " Bung Lode," is characterised by a 
thin joint filling — mostly of crystallized quartz — -from 3 to 6 inches in thick- 
ness, in which lumps of pure wolfram occur. It has been followed by shafts 
and shallow cuts from M.L. 20 diagonally through the adjoining M.L. 23. a 
distance of about 25 chains. Numerous shafts have been sunk along this 
lode from a few feet to over 120 feet. Some of which — on rich makes, or 
" bungs," are reported to have yielded up to 35 tons of wolfram concentrates. 

Mr. Alfred James, Manager, under date 12th June 1911, states that a 
large vug occurred in part of this lode, lined with massive quartz crystals 
wiih slugs of wolfram adhering to some of them ; but the bulk of the wolfram 
obtained was in the form of loose slugs on the floor of the "pipe" or vug. 
The largest bunch of ore yielded 12i tons of pure wolfram, which did not 
require dressing. Altogether 35 tons came from this bunch, which was 
followed down 125 feet (the deepest working at the mine) ; at this depth the 
lode material was fluor-spar with a little wolfram. 

Mr. James states that altogether 90 tons of slug wolfram were obtained 
from the New Hope property, with about 80 tons of concentrates, in 
addition, since his connection with it. The previous output is reported to 
have amounted to 30 tons. A grand total of 200 tons The average per- 
centage of stone crushed is stated to work out at 3 per cent, of concentrates. 

Xymagee, 10 miles S.E. A sample of quartz and wolfram from this locality 
was assayed in 1910, with the following result : — 

10-2961— Tungstic trioxide 2.3 per cent. 

Oberon. — In Parish Duckmaloi, County Westmoreland. 

Wolfram — in the form of a small loose lump — was discovered here by 
Messrs. Kirk and Dwyer. A lease of 20 acres was subsequently applied for 
by the Hon. W. Hurley, M.L.C., but was not surveyed owing to prospecting 
failing to reveal sufficient inducement to continue. 

The occurrence is in granite about 5 miles east of Oberon. During the 
prospecting carried out under Mr. Hurley, a considerable amount of 
trenching and cross-cutting was done on the hill where the first discovery was 
made. A quartz vein, carrying a little Molfrain, was located, underlying 
flatly into the hill ; it was opened by a cutting about 40 feet in length, and 
-a tunnel of 30 feet, but the prospects were very poor. 

During the surface prospecting on the hill, a 40 lb. slug of pure wolfram 
a,nd a number of smaller pieces were found, the former being presented to 
the Mining and Geological Museum. 

Payten and Henry s Wolfram Lease. — Cow Flat, M.L. 15, Parish Rock 
Vale, County Clive. An option over this lease was taken in 1907 by the 
Elliott Tin Mining Company, Ltd. (J. Mackay, Legal Manager, 125 Queen- 
street, Melbourne), who put through a trial crushing of 150 tons for 
1 ton 4 cwt. qrs. 27 lb. of wolfram concentrates ; equal to 08 per cent, of 
•concentrates of unstated value. A "bung" or pipe of average ore 14 feet x 
14 feet was exposed in the quarry, but operations were suspended in March, 
1908. 

I'ulhto]) District. — Fifteen tons of wolfram were obtained in this district 
<iuringl910.* 

Pucka Lode. — Near Yulgilbar. Portion 76, Parish Yulgilbar, County Drake. 

A unique discovery of wolfram, associated with sulj^hide of antimony, was 
made in 1907 by Mr. T. Bassetti in the Pucka Antimony Mine. It is, 
however, likely to prove more of mineralogical interest than commercial 
"Value. 



• Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1910, p. 57. 



64 

The antimony lode strikes N. 65° E., vertical. Opened by four shafts — 
26, 30, 43, and 53 feet deep— one in a parallel lode 12 feet south-east. The- 
antimony lode varies from 3 to 18 inches in thickness, the ores being stibnite 
and cervantite, in quartz. 

Roberts' Lode. — On south side of M.L. 65, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive ;: 
5^ miles N.W. of Torrington. 

Discovered same year as Cow Flat Mine ; worked in 1910 by R. Roberts. 
Quartz-topaz rock, carrying bismuth and wolfram at junction of slate and 
granite. No regular strike discernible. Opened by numerous shallow trenches 
and open cuts. 

Rockley, Stony Creek. — Wolfram recorded by G. W. Card,* probably from. 
Mt. Stromlo. 

Rockvale WoJjram Mines, Limited. — Originally known — on a smaller scale 
— as the "Wentworth Proprietary," when operating the "Cow Flat" Mine 
(M.L. 203), now abandoned (which see). 

The present Company has a capital of £30,000, in 60,000 shai-es of 10s. 
each, H. S. Benjamin, secretary, 51 and 53 Elizabeth-street, Sydney, and 
holds M.Ls. 18, 19, 20, 34, 68, 90, 91, 95, 101, and 205 (aggregating 
338 acres, including machinery and dam sites), in Parish Rock Vale, 
County Clive. 

The leases, battery, and dams are situated on, and adjacent to, the upper 
portion of Black Swamp, or Bald Rock Creek. The site of the milling and 
concentrating plant ir, known as " Tungsten"; the original scene of operations 
at Cow Flat being known as " Minera." 

The Rockvale Company, in addition to unnamed deposits, operates those 
known after their discoverers, as "Hawkins," "Carter's," "Gibbs," and 
" Romer's," which are connected by tramways with the reduction plant, and 
each worked in a face by quarrying or " open cutting," taking all the ore- 
rock as it comes to the battery. 

The reduction plant consists of two units, each of 10-head of 1,250-lb. 
stamps, dropping 5 inches at the rate of 110 falls per minute. Stamper 
boxes fitted with wire-wove screens, with 64 holes to the square inch, 
and Challenge self-feeders. 

From the first 10-head the pulp passes direct to two Wilfley tables; the> 
" middlings " from these to two 6 feet Frue vanners ; the " tailings " from 
vanners to settling buddies. Centre "buddlings" allowed to accumulate, 
then retreated over the Frue vanners separately. 

From the se(;ond and latest 10-head unit the pulp, passing through 16 to 
25 hole wire-wove screens in the stamper boxes, will run to a 5-hutch May 
Bros.' jig; " spigots" to a 5 feet Huntington mill Avith screens of 64 mesh ; 
the mill pulp, after passing through a Spitzkasten, is fed to two Card tables ;. 
"middlings" to Frue vanners ; "tailings," elevated by 25 feet wheel, pass 
through blanket-lined launders to discharge. 

The motive power for battery is obtained by two 35 h.p. Mort's Dock 
boilers, a 50 h.p. single cylinder horizontal engine, and a vertical engine and 
70-light dynamo. Concentration plant driven by 14 h.p. Robey engine. 

The breaking plant consists of a May Bros, and a Robey breaker, gauge 
1^ inches to 2 inches, with two link-belt elevators to hoppers. 

Pumping Plant. ^Two pumps, 3 inches and 5 inches, delivering 24,000 
gallons per hour. 

Water Supply. — Two dams ; upper dam, in Black Swamp Creek, used for 
feed water and concentrating tables. 

• Handbook Mining and Ceol. Mus., 1902, j). 90. 




C O' 



Ptatk XIV 




,>Ji$ ^ 



'■¥SM 



Mr^. J. Shan/ii-: v- 



Tungsten near Torrington. 
l!o';kvale Wolfram Company's Main Quarry (south-west end), Hawkins' Section. 



65 

Ore storage bin, 400 tons capacity ; two battery bins, each 100 tons 
capacity. Trucks hoisted to storage bin. Battery bins filled by link-belt 
elevator from breakers. 

Cost of wood fuel, 8s. per cord. 

11-907 — Concentrates (average from 11^ tons obtained in March, 1911) from Rockvale 
Wolfram Company's Mine, Black Swamp : — 

Analysis by Mr. H. P. White. 

Timgstic trioxide 6064 

Bismuth trioxid e 2*16 

Manganous oxide 2"65 

Alumina absent 

Ferrous oxide 1821 

Lime "5 1 

M agnesia trace 

Rare earths of the Cerium group as oxides, Ce208, 

DijOg, YzOs, Th02, &c 0-37 

Gangue 13-96 

Phosphoric anhydride 0"81 

Carbon dioxide 0*16 

Moisture and undetermined 0'53 

100-00 
Fine gold^a few grains per ton. 
Fine silver — 6 dwt. 13 grs. per ton. 

Hawkins's Section, M.L. 20. — The deposits in this lease have been opened 
by two quarries a short distance apart, and connected with the battery by a 
tram-line, 40 chains in length. 

The mode of working and the occurrence of the lode-rock are illustrated in 
the accompanying views. The lode-rock in the main quarry dips in the 
direction of the second, and latest, opening ; and will, it is believed, be found 
to connect with it, as an intermediate shaft cut the lode at a depth of 25 
feet. 

It is probable that the quartz-topaz lode-rock has the form of an undulating 
intrusive sheet or sill, the anticlinal folds or rolls of which form the 
neighbouring outcrops above the sedimentary rocks, owing to removal by 
denudation of part of the latter. 

Close to the main quarry, a shaft sunk during early prospecting operations 
pierced a porphyritic rock, composed of perfectly symmetrical quartz and 
felspar crystals, which on exposure fell apart in individual crystals. The 
quartz is in the form of prisms, with doubly terminated pyramids ; the 
felspar in Carlsbad twins and simple forms. 

In the main quarry the lode is intersected by a porphyritic dyke, about 
3 ft. 6 in. wide ; from the position of the porphyritic rock cut in the shaft, it 
is probably also intrusive in the lode-rock. 

The second principal workings are in Carter's Lease, M.L 205, the quarry 
being 60 chains by tram-line from the battery. Here also the nature of the 
occurrence and mode of working are well illustrated in the accompanying 
views ; the junctions of the sedimentary rocks with the intrusive lode-rock 
are also defined. 

Haulage from this quarry is by cable wound by a 18 h. p. Robey engine ; 
the lode-rock does not outcrop above the general level, hence has to be 
followed dowii by incline track. 

Quarries are being opened in contiguous outcrops known as Romer's and 
Gibbs', in M.Ls. 34 and 101, where good surface indications were obtained 
V)y the original prospectors. It is probable that these outcrops may prove 
to be connected with those in Garter's Lease, M.L. 205. 
49— C 



66 

Two or more intersecting dykes of ore-rock occur in this lease, one of 
which probably connects with the outcrop in Romer's lease (M.L. iOl). 
Gibbs' section adjoins these two leases, but has only been superficially opened 
by the original prospector in search of rich " slugs " of wolfram. The 
Company intend opening a quarry and connecting it with the tramway 
system. 

The second crushing and concentrating unit had been given a preliminary- 
trial, but up to the end of August, had not been put in commission, but was 
shortly expected to be at work. 

The total ore crushed in the new plant at Black Swamp to the 2nd 
September, 1911, amounted (according to Mr. James Fletcher, managing 
director), to 16,774 tons, from which 112 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs. of wolfram 
concentrates were recovered, equal to 0*67 per cent. 

Ruvisby's Zo(ie.— South-west of the Yankee Tin Lodes, The Gulf, Parish 
Muir, County Gough. 

The richest pipe or bunch of wolfram in the Gulf district occurred in this 
claim, which consisted of a small triangular area of "left" ground between 
twu other claims, its base measuring only a few feet ; yet 27 tons of clean ore 
was extracted from it, whilst the adjoining claims yielded little or none. The 
pipe measured 10 feet by 8 feet in its strongest part. The veinstone was 
chloritic and soft. The wolfram occurred in masses of great purity, accom- 
panied by large bunches of rich green fluor-spar, and lesser quantities of 
mispickel and copper pyrites. Vugs lined with large quartz crystals were 
conspicuous. 

The pipe was followed to the 120 feet level, the ore becoming poorer with 
depth ; but Httle prospecting was done, though, according to local report, 
6 cwt. of ore were obtained from the bottom of the shaft. The latter, however, 
is not now available ; the nature of the ore-body, bulging in parts, rendered 
the shaft unsafe as the ore was won. 

Several parallel veins occur in the granite, carrying a small proportion of 
wolfram. 

E. C. Andrews states that 12 feet of sinking in Rumsby's Pipe produced 
4.\ tons of wolfram, of a value of £450, lumps as much as 70 lb. of pure 
wolfram being obtained.* 

Early in 1911 a ton of mixed scheelite and wolfram was obtained from 
this mine. 

Scrubby Gully.— 3. Graham discovered wolfram in the usual matrix in 
March, 1911, between Scrubby and Highland Home Creeks, Parish Highland 
Home, County Gough, about 2 miles west of M.L. 52 and 1 mile south of 
Mt. Everard. 

Sampson and Cokehill's Lode.— M.Jj. 21, Parish Ruby, County BuUer. 
Wolfram in small quantity occurs in this lease. 

Smith'g Mica, and other Lodes. — M.L. 65 and 79, Parish Rock Vale, 
County Clive, Black Swamp Creek, 5^ miles north-west of Torrington. 

It will be seen from the plan that a number of distinct outcrops of the 
quartz- topaz ore-rock occur in these leases at no distance from the junction of 
the sedimentary strata. So far only the most superficial prospecting has been 
done. Recently, however, the leases have changed hands, and active develop- 
ment is likely to ensue in the near future. In each outcrop wolfram and 
bismuth are discernible. 

The lode known locally as the "Mica" lode has been sunk upon for a 
few feet. Here massive biotite occurs with flaky plates of wolfram, a little 

• Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. WaUs, 1904, p. 143. 



Plate XV. 




Hm. J. Shanmssy. 

Tungsten near Torriiigton. 

Rockvale Wolfram Company's Quarry (north end), Cartel's Section. 



Plate XVI. 




'■f 4 . 
.»//-„. J. Slianrienxfi 



Tungsten near Torrington. 
Rock vale Wolfram Company's (Quarry, Carter's 8e<;tion. 



67 

tinstone, and fine acicular crystals of beryl. A green mineral regarded by 
Mr. Card as probably " torbernite " (copper uranite) occurs in minute quan- 
tity, too small for test. 

Two small tin lodes occur in M.L. 79, one of wbich was opened for a 
distance of about 1 chain to a depth of about 30 feet many years ago ; 
4 tons of tinstone are reported to have been obtained from it. It strikes 
N. 35° E. in soft granite. The other lode on the south boundary has not 
been opened beyond a few feet ; tin, wolfram, and bismuth ore occur here in 
association. 

Several of the quartz-topaz outcrcps in M.L. 65 are very massive, and 
could be cheaply worked by quarrying. It is, moreover, highly probable, 
from the mode of occurrence of this rock, that some of the smaller isolated 
masses will be found to be connected. 

Smyth's Claim. — Near Torrington. E. C. Andrews described this site, 
which is not at present being worked so far as known, as containing 
"wolfram and monazite in quartz and pegmatite veins traversing slate near 
granite. A vertical shaft 80 feet deep has been sunk in a fissure without 
losing the wolfram. Monazite is associated with kaolin, probably decomposed 
felspar of pegmatites. At times the pegmatite passes into tight quartz." * 

iitalling's Lode. — Sugarloaf Mountain, near head of Wilson's Downfall 
Creek, about 2^ miles north-west of Wilson's Downfall, close to Queensland 
border, Parish "Ruby, County Buller. 

Discovered by G. and F. Stalling in 1892, but not worked until 1907, 
when it was opened to a depth of a few feet for a yield of about half a ton 
of wolfram concentrates. It was further prospected by Vosper and party for 
a length of about 2 chains, and to a depth of 20 feet in places. Six tons 
of wolfram concentrates are reported to have been thus obtained. The 
wolfram occurred in bunches at intervals along the lode, which strikes N". 25°^ 
E., in aplitic granite, and dips gently S. 65° E. Width from 3 to 6 inches on 
an average. Several small parallel veins have been superficially prospected 
about 1 chain east of the main lode, but nothing of importance was 
discovered. A little molybdenite occurs in one of these. 

Sugarloaf Mountain, near Wilson's Downfall. — (See Stalling's Lode.) 

Temora, 20 miles west. — A mixed sample of wolfram and cassiterite from 
this locality was assayed in 1910 for the following return : — 

10-1881. — Tungstic trioxide 41 per cent. 

Metallic tin 19 per cent. 

Toohey's Wolfram Loch. — On right bank of Pulletop Creek (also known as 
Bourke's Creek), Portion 29, Parish Burrandana, County Mitchell. 

Discovered by M. Toohey about 1903, and worked intermittently since. 
Strike N. and S., dip slight to the east; in granite near slate. Opened 
for about 300 feet in length to a depth of 6 feet. The wolfram occurs in white 
quartz, and also in the granite walls, as well as loose in clay pug, occurring 
occasionally in the centre of the lode. The width varies from 3 inches to 
2 feet, forming lenses. The wolfram occurs in shoots. The walls are well 
defined, and micaceous for a thickness of about 6 inches. About half a ton 
of wolfram concentrates, assaying 68 per cent, tungstic acid, was obtained 
from the lode to September, 1910. A fair amount of the mineral was shed 
for a distance of 30 feet from the lode, as the result of weathering and 
denudation . 

* Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 



68 



The wolfram appears to cut out in depth, at least so far as followed, 
though probably other shoots may occur. 

About 70 yards east a small quartz vein carries a little wolfram, but not 
in workable quantity. 

Torrinf^ton Ore Company, Limited. — Office, 2 Bridge-sti'eet, Sydney. 
Secretary, W. Liggins. Capital, <£12,002, in 48,008 shares of 5s. each. 

Operating the undermentioned mines in the Parishes of Rock Vale and 
Highland Home, Counties Clive and Gough. Situated about 7 miles from 
Torrington Post Office ; 23 from Deepwater Railway Station ; 382 from the 
Port of Newcastle ; and 490 from Sydney. 

Elevation — from 3,600 to 3,700 feet above sea-level. 

Mines. Areas. 

"Bismuth" M.L. 324 80 acres. 

" Fielder's Hill " ... M.L. 325 80 „ 

„ M.L. 326 40 „ 

"Wolfram Hill" ... M.L. 28 30 „ 

„ ... M.L. 13 10 „ 

„ ... M.L. 14 8 ac. 3 r. 18p. 

„ ... M.L. 8 10 acres. 

... M.L. 9 10 „ 

Battery Site M.T. 2 „ 

Dam Site M.T. 4 „ 

The "Bismuth" Mine is situated 21 chains N. 28° E. from the battery; 
Fielder's Hill, 60 chains N. 3° W ; and Wolfram Hill, 160 chains 75° E. 

The ore is at present conveyed to the battery in ordinary tip-carts at a 
daily rate of 13s. per cart, contingent on an agreed number of loads being 
delivered. It is patent that a considerable saving could be efifected by 
substitution of cable or motor traction. 

The "Bismuth Mine" — so named because of the high yield of bismuth — 
was originally held by Messrs. Brady and Watson, who sold to Messrs. 
Massey and Brooks, who subsequently formed the above-named Company. 

Before the latter decided on a local concentrating plant, 270 tons of ore 
from this mine were despatched to the Sunny Corner Mine in the Bathurst 
district, where the firtst Wilfley table installed in the State was in operation. 
On the experience there gained in concentrating the wolfram and bismuth 
product, the present plant at Torrington was de.signed. It consists of 10 
head of 1,000-lb. starap.s, dropping 8 inches at 95 falls per minute. The 
discharge screens are wire-wove, 64 holes to the square inch. 

The extreme fragibility of the wolfram ore, even with these coarse screens, 
is such that 80 per cent, of the concentrates are found to pass through 1,600 
holes to the inch ; hence the necessity for coarse crushing to avoid undue 
sliming. 

In operation the pulp from the battery is divided between a Card and a 
Wilfley table ; the " middlings," and a slice of " tails " from both, are re- 
treated on a second Wilfley. The tailings from the Card table and the first 
Wilfley are elevated by bucket wheel and pass to tailing heap through 
blanket-lined launders. Tailings from the second Wilfley run into two dead 
buddies, the " centres " from which are re-treated in a " sweeper " buddle, 
where a final finished product is obtained of exceeding fineness ; almost the 



Platf. XVII. 




T. U. Nicholax. 



Torringlon Ore Com])any"s "Bismuth" Mine, showing Junclion of Massive Ore-rock 
with Sedimentary Rocks (in upper left-hand corner of view). 



Platk XVIII. 




T. JI. Xirholax. 

Torringtoii Ore Company's " IJismiith " Mine Entrance of Inclined Shaft- 



69 

whole of it passing readily through a screen of 3,600 holes per square inch. 
The quality of this final concentrate is shown in the following analysis by 
J. C. H. Mingaye : — 

910— Concentrates from Buddies, Torrington Wolfram Company's Mine. 

Moisture at lOOC 0-12 

Tungstic trioxide 45'40 

Bismuth trioxide 8 "26 

Bismuth trisulphide 0"60 

Copper oxide _ minute trace 

Manganous oxide 2 52 

Cobalt and nickel oxides 0*08 

Alumina trace 

Ferrous oxide 12"58 

Lime ,... 0'23 

Magnesia 0*05 

Rare earths of the Cerium group as oxides, CejOj, 

TaoOs. DiaOg, &c 3'75 

Thoria 0-08 

Gangue 24*84 

Phosphoric acid 0*85 

Carbon dioxide 0'40 



99-76 

The absence of tin proved. 

Fine gold — 3 dwt. 6 grs. per ton. 

Fine silver — 1 oz. dwt. 16 grs. per ton. 

The composition of the concentrates obtained from the Card and Wilfley 
tables is shown in the accompanying analysis by J. C. H. Mingaye of a 
sample taken by the Writer on the 24th March, 1911, from the cut-off 
launder : — 

911 — Concentrates from tables, Torrington Ore Company's Mine. 

Moisture at 100 C 0-12 

Tungstic trioxide 56 '00 

Bismuth trioxide 11'16 

Bismuth trisulphide 1 "45 

Copper oxide trace 

Manganous oxide 3 "61 

Cobalt and nickel oxides 0-07 

Alumina trace 

Ferrous oxide 16'39 

Lime 0'57 

Magnesia "05 

Rare earths of the Cerium group as oxides, CejOj, 

DiA. YjOs, &c 2-62 

Thoria 0-05 

Gangue 7*19 

Phosphoric acid I'Ol 

Carbon dioxide 0"]0 

100-39 
Fine gold — 4 dwt. 8 grs. per ton. 
Fine silver — 1." dwt. 11 grs. per ton. 

The concentrates contained a quantity of particles of metallic iron, which were carefully 
taken out of the sample prepared for analysis. 

The finished product bagged for market is carefully sampled and brought 
up to grade when necessary. 



70 

The tailings as finally discharged from all sections are represented by the 
following analysis of an average from 200 holes, sunk in the tailing* heap on 
behalf of the Company : — 

11-912 — Tailings from the Torrington Ore Company's Battery. 
W. A. Greig, Analyst. 

Insoluble in acids (gangue) 95'71 

Tnngstic trioxide "94 

Ferric oxide and alumina 1*89 

Lime 0-50 

Magnesia 0"11 

Total water 0-66 

99-71 
No bismuth detected. 
Composition of gangue — 

Silica 88-28 

Ferric oxide and alumina 8 -82 

Alkalies, and undetermined 2-90 

100-00 
From each of the Company's mines rich bunches of pure wolfram aie 
occasionally, obtained. The Bismuth Mine, in particular, has yielded solid 
masses of considerable weight, one from the earlier workings weighing 3 cwt. 
The composition of one of these is shown in the following analysis by 
H. P. White :— 

11-909 — Pure Crushed Wolfram from Torrington Ore Company's Bismuth Mine. 

Tungstic trioxide 70"73 

Ferrous oxide 18-13 

Manganous oxide 3-64 

Lime .... 1-64 

Magnesia trace 

Gangue 5-55 

99-69 
No tin, bismuth, or rare earths of the Cerium Group detected. 

The proportion of manganous oxide compared with ferrous oxide in the 
samples tested, seem to place them nearer " f erberite " than "wolframite." 

Smaltine (arsenide of cobalt, nickel, and iron) occurs in the Bismuth 
Mine ; a typical sample yielded the following results : — 

11-949 — Arsenical ore, with biotite, from the Torrington Ore Company's Bismuth Mine, 

Torrington. 

Aualysis by W. A. Greig. 

Arsenic 31-69 

Bismuth 0-60 

Lead trace 

Tin absent 

Cobalt 615 

Nickel 231 

Iron 11-55 

•Alumina 8-86 

Lime 1'35 

Magnesia 067 

Sulphur 0-38 

Gangue 31-40 

Oxygen, and undetermined 5 04 

10000 
Fine silver at the rate of 7 dwt. 15 grs. per ton. 
,, gold ,, ,, a trace (under 1 dwt. per ton). 
•Including any phosphoric anhydride or titanium dioxide present. 




= 5 ° 



71 

Bismuth Mine. — The position of this mine in 1904 is thus described by 
E. C. Andrews : — 

" Occurrence. — Wolfram and bismuth in greisen and pegmatite at 
junction of fine-grained granite, with spotted slates. Strike of the 
" quartz (greisen) blow" is about N.W. and S.E. In length it exceeds 
100 yards, and in width about 15 yards. 

" Workings. — The lode is opened up along some 100 feet of outcrop. 
An open cut was formed from which two shafts have been sunk, con- 
nected with each other (by sloping drives) at a depth of 75 feet. One 
of the shafts is in form of a cut driven diagonally across lode. 

"■Minerals. — Wolfram, native bismuth, and sulphide of bismuth. 

Gangue — Fluor-spar, quartz, greisen, ppgmatite, emeralds (beryls), 

biotite, monazite, and topaz (1). In the tight, solid quartz containing 

little or no admixture of mica, very little wolfram occurs ; but in the 

strings and bunches of pegnnatite (coarse vitreous quartz, large white 

and pink felspar, masses of biotitp, with beryls, monazite, ikc), which 

occur throughout the greisen mass, the wolfram is specially plentiful in 

lai-ge squarish and friable pieces. One piece raised exceeded 300 lb. in 

weight. The bismuth generally has a similar habitat to that of the 

wolfram. The wolfram not occurring in true fissures, and being 

scattered through the branching pegmatites, is more or less patchy in 

character. At the lowest workings, however (75 feet), it is just as 

pronounced as at the surface, and there is every indication of its 

continuation to a much greater depth.''* 

In 1911 the ore-body was still going strong under foot and maintaining 

ita metallic values. The incline shaft had reached 300 feet from the surface. 

The inclination of the first 200 feet being about 31°, of the last 100 feet, 

about 35°. The vertical depth at the face being about 150 feet. 

The richness of this lode in both tungsten and bismuth, enables the 
Company to maintain standard grades for their wolfram-bismuth con- 
centrates, by admixture of proportional tonnage in their crushing supply. 

Fielder's Hill, in M.L. 325, is a small prominence formed by an outcrop 
of the quartz-topaz ore-rock intruding the sedimentary series. Its original 
appearance is shown in the accompanying photograph taken by the mine 
manager — Mr. T. H. Nicholas — before mining operations began. 

The later views of the quarry faces (the most extensive in the field) were 
also taken by the same gentleman and reveal the raining aspect in April, 
1911, the length of the quarry being 150 feet, and the width about 70 feet. 

The present quarry face at the north end is about 42 feet deep in solid ore- 
rock. The overburden of Permo-Carboniferous claystones, sandstones, and 
conglomerates, is clearly shown in this view ; the miner on the upper ledge 
standing on the junction of the two formations. 

The quarry is approached by a cutting from the west, from which an incline 
shaft has been sunk to the level of the present bottom of the open workinos, 
through which the ore is raised to the truck line level, by a winch. The 
loaded trucks are run by hand to a breaker of 8 tons per hour capacity, 
driven by an 18 h.p. engine; the broken stone being delivered from the 
breaker into the ore-bin, from which the carts are loaded. 

In the bottom of the quarry, about 35 feet back from the face, in March, 
1911, a large mass of the sedimentary rocks was exposed ; the contacts with 
the ore-rock affording most instructive illustrations of the shattering and 
intruding character of the latter ; several sections to scale being introduced 
in this work. 

• Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 



72 

Though a large amount of the exposed ore-rock at times reveals little 
■wolfram, yet a shot at any time may expose vugs with rich bunches of both 
wolfram and bismuth, the latter in the form of carbonate and oxide generally. 

The interesting occurrence of a pipe-like mass of pure kaolin in this quarry 
has already been described ; though at its upper level nearly 12 feet in 
diameter, it tapers to a couple of feet at the bottom of the quarry. Its 
composition has been determined. (See p. 42.) 



North. 



South. 




Quartz-topaz ore-rock. 
Sedimentary rocks. 



Fig. 7. — Section across Fielder's Hill Quarry. M.L. 325, Torrington. Scale 40 ft. to 

an inch. 



— ISOfl 




i I -t- -(- 

«_ — 35 — 

1^=^^ Soil 



*! Quartz-topaz ore-rock. 



Y//////X Sedimentarj- rocks. 

Fig. 8.— Longitudinal section, Fielder's Hill Quarry, 



The Wolfram Hill workings are in M.Ls. 8 and 28, Parish Highland Home, 
County Gough. 

Wolfram Hill also owes its prominence to the superior resistance to 
weathering offered by the quartz-topaz ore-rock — compared with the 
surrounding sedimentary rocks. 

This deposit has been opened by three shafts— the deepest 50 feet, and 
open trenching for a distance of about 130 feet. The workings are 



73 

connected along a junction of the two formations where rich ore made in 
bunches. Only these richer makes were followed, as the ore had to be 
carted 2 miles to the battery. Work has at present ceased in this section. 

In M.L. 8 adjoining, a trench 250 feet long, 10 feet wide, and about 10 feet 
in depth, has been cut in a lode striking in the direction of Wolfram Hill, and 
bounded by conglomerate and clay stone. This opening is known as the 
" Bismuth End," because of the predominance ot that metal. 



i-in. to C-ln, thick 

Opened by numtrous shafts 
, and trenches at short Intervals 
for a distance of 20 chains 




Rich pipes or "bungs " of 
wolfram obtained 




80 ISO , 




Wolfram 
.; Hill 




Fig. 9.— Plan of Wolfram Hill Deposits. 



The following particulars of output have been kindly supplied by the 
Torrington Ore Company : — 

Old mine (" Bismuth"), from 1904 to 31st July, 1911 ... 24,581 tons of ore. 

Fielder's Hill „ „ ... 23,724 

Wolfram Hill ,, „ ... 1,956 

Prospecting shows ,, „ ... 555 ,, 

50,816 
Yield in concentrates to Slst July, 1911, 638 tons, of a value of £87,840. 



74 

The Broken Hill Block 14 Mining Company, after nearly six months 
testing of the Fielder's Hill deposit by diamond drill boring, has recently 
exercised an option to purchase the Torrington Ore Company's interests. A 
new company of 150,000 shares of 20s. each is being formed to carry on 
operations on a large scale. 

Torrington Wolfram Proprietary , Limited. — M.Ls. 10, 55 to 59, 60, 61, 
64, 70, 75 to 77, 81, 83, 84, 87, 92, Parishes Rockvale and Bates, County 
Clive. G. P. Lock, Citizens' Chambers, Newcastle. 

On east side of Black Swamp Creek, opposite Rockvale Wolfram Mines, 
Limited, 4 miles from Torrington Post Office, and 20 from Deep water 
Railway Station. 

At present working — by quarrying — in M.Ls. 70 and 75, which are 
connected with the battery by tramways 20 and 56 chains in length. 

Dam sites for additional water supply secured on Bobs and Green Swamps ; 
main supply from Black Swamp Creek, adjacent to battery. 

The reduction plant consists of a Krupp ball mill — wet crushing — of a 
capacity up to 100 tons for twenty-four hours. 

Mill fitted with wire- wove screens, 144 holes to the square inch; and fed 
automatically by percussion feeders. 

Mill pulp to pass through classifier to two Krupp tables, " middlings " to 
Ferrari's tables. Concentrates from all tables to one 4-foot Frue vanner, as 
with present low-grade ore unable to take cut of clean concentrates direct 
from tables ; this will follow with higher grade ore. 

Plant driven by suction gas, firing a 62-break h.p. engine. 

A 15-kilowatt generator supplies current for driving tables, pumping 
water supply, draining mines, and for electric lighting. 

The suction gas is manufactured in the Economic Gas and Power Company's 
Dowson Plant (London), charcoal for which is made in a patent circular 
retort, 7 feet diameter, by 9 feet in height, made of ordinary steel plate 
unlined ; capacity, two cords of billets, not exceeding 9 inches diameter. 
Time for green wood, twenty-four hours per charge ; dry wood, thirteen to 
fifteen hours. Charcoal delivered in trucks from retort to store adjacent to 
producer. Eight cwt. of charcoal and two-thirds of a cord of wood used in 
each ten-hour shift, for all power purposes. 

Ore from the quarries in M.Ls. 70 and 75 is delivered by horse-traction 
tramway (with loop at delivery end) on to an 8-feet grizzly, set at 1^ inch. 
The floor of the latter is level with rock-breaker, into which it is shovelled. 

The Krupp rock-breaker — 15 inches x 9 inches — has a capacity of 8 tons 
per hour to \}, inch, gauge. The broken ore falls down shoot to elevator boot, 
thence elevated to 90-ton ore bin. 

When examined in March, 1911, the concentrating plant had not been 
long running, and additions in the way of classifiers and extra tables were 
contemplated for more efficient working. 

Unfortunately the hunch-plates of the Ball mill gave out in May, and the 
spares ordered from Germany proved too large. At the beginning of August 
the mill was still " hung up." 

The grade of the ore quarried at the beginning was exceedingly low, not 
averaging more than about 3 lb. of concentrates to the ton ; at the date men- 
tioned, the yield had increased to 9 or 10 lb. to the ton, a percentage too low 



Plate XXII. 




Mis. J. SliarnieSKil. 

Torrint^ton Wolfram I'ropiietaty — Entrance to No. 1 Quairj- in M.L. 70 and Tnun-line 

to Battery. 



75 



for profitable working. As some richer deposits close to the batttery have been 
partially tested by shaft, it would be wise to develop these and use the 
higher grade ore to sweeten the output from the quarries. 

Quarries 70a and 75a afford most instructive evidence of intrusive con- 
tacts, as will be seen in the following sections. 




m 



Soil. 



"■ r| Quartz-topaz ore-rock. 



Y//////\ Sedimentary rocks. 



Scale 8 ft. to an inch. 



Fig. 10. — Section in quarry in M.L. 75a, showing intrusive contact. Parish Bates, 
County Clive. Torrington Wolfram Proprietary, Ltd. 



Soil. 




Quartz-topaz ore-rock. Sedimentary rocks. 

Fig. 11. — Section in quarry in M.L. 75a. Parish Bates, County Clive. 
Showing intrusive contact. Torrington Wolfram Proprietary, Ltd. 
Scale 8 ft. to an inch. 



Quarry 75c exhibits excellent instances of " rolls," or undulations of the 
intrusive sill of ore-rock, as it pitches down under the sedimentaries and 
again rises to the surface a short distance away. 



76 

The composition of the concentrates obtained from M.L. 75 is shown in 
the following analysis, which reveals more the constitution of ferberite 
than wolframite : — 

11/908. — Concentrates from M.L. 75, Parish Bates, County Clive, Black Swamp, 
Torrington Wolfram Proprietary. * 

Analysis by Mr. W. A. Greig. 

Tungstic trioxide 5851 

Bismuth trioxide 4*82 

Manganous oxide 2 10 

Alumina absent 

Ferrous oxide 13'61 

Lime 0-60 

Magnesia absent 

Rare earths of 'the Cerium groups as oxides Ce20j, 

DijOs, YiOs, ThOj, &c 0-14 

Phosphoric anhydride 0*42 

Carbon dioxide 0".34 

Gangue , 19-77 

100-31 
Fine gold — 3 dwt. 6 gr. per ton. 
Fine silver — 4 dwt. 8 gr. per ton. 

During operations 15 tons of concentrates were obtained, according to 
Mr. G. P. Lock, which averaged 59-5 per cent, of Tungstic oxide, and 6*5 per 
cent, of bismuth. 

Treivhella^s Lode. — Near north-east corner of M.L. 47, Parish Bates, 
County Clive. 

Discovered by John Trewhella in April, 1910. Striking N. 35° E. in 
porphyritic granite. Opened by a shaft 12 feet deep, and two shallow 
trenches, the extreme openings being about 140 feet apart. Width of lode 
about 2 feet 6 inches, though the lode formation is reported to run to 8 feet. 
Wolfram and bismuth occur in association ; the richest portion of the latter 
is confined to about 1 foot in width in centre of lode. 

From the shaft and trenches 1 cwt. 3 qrs. of wolfram, assaying 70 per cent, 
tungstic oxide, was obtained ; and 150 lb. bismuth ore, assaying 50 per cent, 
metallic. The bismuth realised 3s. 6d. per lb., and the wolfram at the rate 
of £102 per ton. 

Uren's Claim. — Near Torrington. E. C. Andrews describes this site in 1904 
as a — 

"Large quartzose greisen 'blow,' exceeding 120 yards in length, 

crossed with irregularly-shaped masses of vitreous quartz and pegmatite 

containing friable wolfram. Type same as its neighbour, Kate Mine, 

The occurrence is in conglomerates and spotted slates near granite. One 

shaft is 25 feet deep."* 

Wagra. — Portions 181, 191, 192, Parish Wagra, County Goulburn. Messrs. 

Collingridge Bros, on the 2nd February, 1911, reported discovery of a 

wolfram-bearing lode running through these portions in rugged country. 

Samples forwarded to the Department consist of tabular wolfram in quartz. 

Warren's Lode. — About 2 chains north of, and parallel to, Davison's Lode, 
The Gulf, Parish Muir, County Gough. 

Opened to alxjut 20 feet. Veinstone chloritic, with fibrous hornblende. 
Waukeroo, Barrier Range. — Wolfram has been reported from this locality, 
but particulars are not available. 

Welcome Stranger Mine, area 4 acres. — On north boundary of Portion 92, 
Parish Rock Vale, County Clive. 

* Add. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. 




c? 






77 

Opened about the middle of 1910 by Myers and McMullen. Shaft 24 feet 
deep in August. About 4^ tons of wolfram in coarse lumps extracted. At 
date of inspection in August, 1910, a large block of pure wolfram was show- 
ing at bottom of shaft. The mineral occurs in chlorite and quartz in aplitic 
granite. In March, 1911, the ore-shoot had been followed to 46 feet in 
picking ground, the total output reaching 14-| tons of high grade wolfram — 
the largest block weighing 75 lb. 

Wilson's Downjall Ideal Mine. — A little wolfram occurs in this mine in 
platy form in quartz. 

W entworth Mining Properties, Limited. — Minera, near Torrington. (See 
Rockvale Wolfram Company.) 

W entworth Claim. — Cow Flat. E. C. Andrews, in 1904, described this 
mine as follows : — 

" Occurrence — Wolfram in irregularly-shaped quartzose greisen at 
contact of slate and granite. Outcrop from 5 to 10 chains in length, 
about 10 feet in width. 

" Workings— Three prospecting shafts : eastern one, 51 feet deep ; 
middle, 75 feet (with several cuts) ; western, 51 feet (cross-cuts). The 
minerals are wolfram and monazite. Gangue — Quartz, with traces of 
felspar and small percentage of white mica. The wolfram is fairly 
evenly scattered thiough the granular to tight quartz, in square friable 
pieces not at all tabular, as at Wilson's Downfall. 

" Machinery— Mr. Hart well Conder, A.R.S.M., is at present erecting 
a plant to treat the wolfram. A tramway, some three-quarters of a 
mile in length, will deliver the ore into hoppers, the same feeding a rock 
breaker. Trommels, rolls, and jiggers will be employed to save the 
mineral."* Afterwards removed to Black Swamp. 
Wild Kate Mine. — Near Torrington. The position of this mine in 1904 is 
described by E. C. Andrews as : — 

"A large granular greisen ' blow.' Worked by means of open cuts 

and shafts. Irregular masses of pegmatite (large dark vitreous quartz, 

felspar, and black mica) branch repeatedly through the ' quartz blow.' 

In these bunches occur large stout crystalline masses of friable wolfi'am,"f 

Yalgogrin. — Wolfram reported to occur 20 miles west of Yalgogrin, but no 

particulars known. 

Yulgilbar. — (See Pucka Lode.) 

• Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 143. t Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 



78 



VIIa.— SCHEELITE DEPOSITS. 

Adelong. — Scheelite from Victoria Reef Gold Mine, County Wynyard, was 
recorded by Professor A. Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S., as "massive, but with a 
portion of a crystal showing on one side, of an amber colour, translucent, 
resinous lustre, brittle, splintery fracture, hardness 4-5 ; specific gravity, 
6 097. Associated with a dark green chloritic veinstone. 

^' The following analysis was kindly made for me by Dr. Helms : — * 

Loss at red heat '25 

Tungstic acid 79-53 

Lime 19-14 

Alumina "58 

Magnesia '07 

99-57 

Alick Steyne Creek. — Parish Highland Home, County Gough. G. W. 
Card records scheelite and wolfram Irom this locality.! 

Barraba and Manilla (between). — Scheelite recorded in Portions 34 and 35, 
Parish Wilson, County Darling. 

Berridale. — Parish Coolamatong, County Wallace. G. W. Card records 
scheelite (red variety) associated with quartz from this locality. | 

Binley and Son's 3Iine. — Portion 109, Parish Metz, County Sandon, adjoining 
Portion 58, the workings between the top lode and the latter site being a more 
or less continuous line of shallow shafts, on a strike of N. 80° W. The new 
shaft on edge of fall is down 50 feet, with a little scheelite and antimony 
showing. The others range to 60 feet in depth. Several small rich lenses 
obtained along the course of the lode. 

According to Mr. E. McNamara, Bingle and Son, since February, 1911, 
have raised : — 

ton cwt. qrs. lb. 
Antimony ... ... ... 1 16 1 4 

Scheelite 12 2 12 

From the same portion the Advance Syndicate, since March, 1909, raised 
the following ore, according to the same authority, the deepest working level 
being 180 feet : — 

tons cwt. qrs. lb. 

Scheelite 27 13 3 2 

Antimony ... ... ... 44 10 2 4 

Btdlr/rog Lode. — M.L, 80, Parish Metz, County Sandon. Hillgrove. 

Discovered and held by F. H. Gibson, who followed a trail by " loaraing " 
up the slope from Swamp Creek, probably the first application of this method 
of prospecting to scheelite. 

Discovered in May, 1910; opened in A.ugust of the same year. Shaft down 
50 feet in May, 1911. Driven north 19 feet, and south 30 feet, at the 40-foot 
level. 

In this level three principal lenses occur, the longest 21 feet. Two tons 
being taken from the largest lens, 1 ton 5 cwt. from the next. The width 
varies from 1 to 10 inches. The lode strikes N. 10° W., and is almost vertical, 
in granite ; the ore continues in roof and floor of level. 

The output to date of 18th May, 1911, amounts to 4 tons 7 cwt. 2 qrs. 15 lb, 

• Min. I'roflucU N. S. W»le«, 1882, p. 104. t Records Oeol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1907, VIII, Pt. 3, p. 3. 

5 ItAd., 1909, Vin, Pt. 4, p. 275. 



79 

The " firsts " average about 72 per cent, of tungstic oxide. The " seconds- 
are estimated to yield about 4 per cent. About 12 tons of the latter await 
treatment at the local battery and concentrating plant. 

A sample of the first concentrates in hand on the 18th May, 1911, yielded 
on assay : — 

11-1499— Tungstic acid 7355 per cent. 

The proprietor has fitted up a compact "bucking" table, faced with a 
granite slab set in clay and cement, framed with wood. (See p. 2-1.) 

In the freehold (Portion 15) adjoining, Mr. Gibson had previously 
discovered three other lines of lode carrying short shoots of scheelite, from 
which he obtained £89 worth of clean mineral. From one — a white quartz 
reef — a block of scheelite 5 inches in diameter yielded £20 1 Is. 6d. worth of 
ore in 8 feet of sinking, then cut out. 

Bowling Alley Point. — (See Nundle.) 

BrowfbS Creek (Lewis' Creek). — Scheelite. 

Carri, Upper Maeleay District.— Mi*. R. Holmes, 71, Thompson-street, 
Darlinghurst, reported to the Writer a lode containing scheelite 8 inches wide 
at Carri. 

Centennial Scheelite Mine. — Hillgrove. G.L. 224, Parish Metz, County 
Sandon, now held as a mineral lease. Area, 10 acres. Held by the 
Centennial Syndicate, the site being originally known as the Centennial 
Gold Mine, situated on west side of Baker's Creek Gorge. 

Worked for scheelite by E. Davis and John CufF, when the mineral was 
worth only about £12 per ton locally. About 20 tons are reported to have 
been obtained at this date. 

H. G. Maddricks and J. Townsend entered into possession about 1899, 
and raised 8 tons in six months. Subsequently E. Davis and W. Young 
raised 15 to 20 tons from it. During these operations the ore was packed to 
the top of the tableland for dressing. 

Since 1903 Maddricks has worked the lode intermittently. 

The total output to May, 1911, is estimated by the latter to be about 
70 tons. 

The lode strikes nearly N. and S., and dips east; in gneissic granite. 
Tt has been opened by tunnels to a depth of about 250 or 300 feet below the 
highest outcrop, and a lower tunnel is now being driven about 80 feet below 
the deepest workings on ore. The principal lens (Davis') is expected to be 
cut at 260 feet from the entrance. This lens had a horizontal length of 
25 feet in the upper workings, and a thickness varying from a sti-eak to 
1 foot, containing high-grade ore, a solid 3 cwt. block being obtained in one 
spot, and as much as 1 ton in a shift. 

The lowest tunnel was in 160 feet in May, 1911, and a connection made 
by winze following a short shoot from the next upper level. Very little ore 
is at present being won whilst driving, the lode fissure forming a " roll," 
owing to protuberance of a hard boss of country from the footwall. It is 
thought that better prospects are likely when the lode channel returns to its 
normal dip, but the main ore-shoot (Davis') is not expected for at least 
another 100 feet of driving. 

In M.L. 30, adjoining, scheelite has been obtained in a lode cut by a 
cross-cut tunnel driven by the old South Hopetoun Gold Mining Company 
many years ago. The tunnel was driven for the purpose of intersecting an 
antimony lode, which was reached in about 300 feet. A lode carrying 
scheelite was cut before the antimony lode was reached. About 25 tons are 



80 

reported to have been obtained in driving along it, and overhead stoping for 
a few feet. This site is now known as the Mountain Maid Lode, a 2-acre 
lease being appUed for to cover it. 

Cranston and Party's Mine. — Curry's Lode, Hillgrove. P.M.L. 5, of 1 acre, 
with 4 acres P.M.L. 7 on the underlay, with which the former, is being 
amalgamated. The lease is situated in freehold. Portion 116, Parish Metz, 
County Sandon, close to the Baker's Creek Falls. 

This is a well-defined lode in porphyritic granite, striking about N. 55° W., 
and underlying N. 35° E., at about 61° in Cranston's lower workings. The 
lode has been worked at intervals for a considerable distance to the south 
eastward, several parallel lines occurring in close proximity. In places it is 
associated with stibnite (antimony sulphide). The scheelite occurs in small 
lenses and thin veins, with frequent blanks in the channel, both horizontally 
and vertically. 

Cranston and party are mining the lower extension of what was originally 
known as Curry's Lode at surface. By sinking a vertical shaft this lode was 
cut at Curry's boundary 10 feet back from the shaft at the 140 feet level. 
The shaft was continued until the lode was intersected, which was then 
followed on the underlay to the present depth of 260 feet by the shaft, or 
about 300 feet from the surface following the lode. 

The present shoot of ore lies north-west of the shaft, and has a horizontal 
length of 16 feet, with an average thickness of scheelite of 3 to 6 inches, 
varying from a thread up to IS inches in the widest, of mixed ore and 
country. 

At the 140 feet level a level was driven north-westerly for some distance, 
ore occurring intermittently for a length of 40 feet. 

Curry's Lode has yielded a considerable amount of scheelite, but the output 
from the earlier workings cannot be ascertained. From the lower portion 
Cranston and party have obtained, from 17th March, 1908, to 18th May, 1911, 
a total of 54 tons 3 cwt. of dressed scheelite, according to one of the party, 
Mr. J. Matson, who kindly supplied the information. 

Damijino Lode. — Hillgrove, M.L. 31, Parish Metz, County Sandon. Out- 
cropping on east side of Baker's Creek, on steep fall. 

Originally opened by G. Coss and J. Elsmere about 1895, who are reported 
to have extracted about 13 tons of scheelite. 

Secured by James Usher and party in 1904. Now being worked by the 
Damifino Syndicate. 

Opened to a depth of 150 feet by shaft. No driving. Length of shoot 
from 2 to 10 feet; average widths .3 to 4 inches, varying from an inch to 
9 inches. Associated in parts with stibnite. 

The syndicate in May, 1911, was driving a low -level cross-cut tunnel, under 
aid from the Prospecting Vote, to intersect this lode about 230 feet below 
the present working level in the shaft. 

Three other parallel lines of lode have been discovered closely adjacent, 
which will be intersected in the crosscut tunnel. One of these, containing 
mixed scheelite and antimony, reported to be 14 to 22 inches wide, has 
been opened to a depth of 42 feet. Now that low-grade mixed ores of this 
character can be concentrated locally, it is thought that this lode will prove 
remunerative. Another lode has been located north-east of the shaft — at no 
great distance. 

The steep fall of the country between the outcrops and the creek affords 
an admirable site for tunnelling, Thn present low-level tunnel is expected 
to reach the main lode in 300 feet ; on the 18th May, 1911, it was in 
1 10 feet. (See also Usher's Lode, p. 86.) 



81 

Frogmore. — Burrowa district. A little scheelite with wolfram occurs 
4 miles east of Frogmore, on Reid's Flat road, M.L. 70, Parish Alton, 
County King. 

Geddes Estate. — Fifteen miles from Manilla, and 1^ from Crow Mountain 
road. Scheelite lode opened about 1908 to a depth of 50 feet in slate country ; 
12 tons of lode stuff crushed for 3 cwt. of concentrates, assaying 68 per cent, 
tungstic acid. 

Gilgai. — In 1906 it was recorded that grains of scheelite occurred in the 
tin drift under basalt, probably in Percy's Lead on north boundary of Portion 
407, and running through Portions 33.5, 420, 157, and M.L. 230, Parish 
■Clive, County Gough, about H miles south-east of Gilgai. 

Hillgrove District. — Scheelite was noted at Hillgrove shortly after the most 
important gold discovery, about 1887. E. C. Andrews, writing of the dis- 
■covery of scheelite at Hillgrov^e, states : — 

" The finding of high-grade scheelite near the town in the coarse 
granite is interesting, inasmuch as, so far, very few similar occurrences 
have been reported from New South Wales. 

"The ore is confined to small lenticular patches in veins. The 
principal suppliers of the mineral are Keys and party, Maddricks and 
party, the Hopetoun, and Wade's party, near Brackin's Spur. Over 
70 tons of scheelite were put into the market for the year ending Decem- 
ber, 1899. Most of the ore was of good quality, varying from 50 per 
per cent, to 60 per cent, of tungstic acid. Ten shillings per unit was 
paid for ore over 60 per cent. Keys and party, from two blocks, supplied 
20 tons; Maddricks and party, about 15 tons; Snow and Son, about 
15 tons ; Willmott and Company, about 20 tons. Most of this has been 
won during the half-year ending December, 1899." * 
Hillgrove Four-mile Scheelite Claim. — On the Metz side of the Falls, near 
the junction of the Four-mile and Baker's Creek, 2i miles southerly from 
Hillgrove, opposite Whittaker's Spur, Parish Metz, County Sandon. 

Quartz reef with scheelite in granite. Strike N.N. W. Opened by shaft to 
23 feet, and tunnel 52 feet. Vein from 1 to 2 inches thick, showing good 
scheelite in places. Aid granted from the Prospecting Vote to sink 50 feet 
■winze from tunnel level (P.B. 02-3,330), No further report. 

E. C. Andrews describes a scheelite lode on top of Falls, north of Eleanora 
Reef at contact of granite and slate (not now worked) in the following 
(terms : — ■ 

"The reef is in granite, with a strike N.N.W., and at right angles to 
the igneous and sedimentary contact. It has been proved for some 400 
yards along the surface. It cuts into the slates, accompanying a granite 
tongue. The occurrence appears to be a true fissure. Workings along 
outcrop rarely exceed 20 feet in depth. "f 
Eillqrove. — Back of Hospital and Snow's Dam, \\ miles north of Baker's 
Creek Gold Mine, Parish Metz, County Sandon. 

In 1908, Inspector Carthew reported, in connection with an application for 
aid from the Prospecting Vote, that a quartz vein striking N.W. in granite 
had been opened by several shafts from 20 to 50 feet in depth, and trenching 
and open cutting. About 70 tons of scheelite were reported to have been 
won, in 1898-9, from the latter, but owing to floodings filling the superficial 
openings, these were not available for inspection (P.B. 08-880). 

Hillgrove. — Two miles north of Baker's Creek Gold Mine, on east side of 
Gorge, near Snow's Dam, Parish Metz, County Sandon, 

• Mineral Resources No. 8. Rept. on the Hillgrove Gold-fleld, 1900, p. 10. 
t Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. 3. Wales., 1904, p. 142. 



82 

In 1900, Inspector Carthew described this occurrence as a reef 6 inches 
wide in granite, and carrying scheelite. Strike N. 20° W. ; dipping at TO** 
from the horizontal. Aided to sink from 8 feet to 50 feet following the vein. 
(P.B. 00-3,221). No further report. 

Hopetoun Reefs, Hillgrove. — E., C Andrews describesthese well-known reefs 
as occurring : — 

" In a very gneissic and crushed granite near a block of included 
slate, three reefs exist, having a parallel disposition. A long tunnel has 
been driven in the hillside near the creek (Baker's) level, with cross-cuts 
therefrom to exploit the reefs. The filling is for the most jiart crushed 
country, very little quartz occurring. The ores are gold and scheelite. 
The values deci-ease decidedly with depth. At depths of 300 and 400 
feet small patches of ' ivory ' scheelite may be seen apparently scattered 
capi-iciously throughout the vein material."! 

" The property containing these reefs was taken up by a company of 
100,000 £\ shares. It was known at first as the 'Root Hog.' After- 
wards, various names, such as the Earl of Hopetoun and Lady Hopetoun, 
were given to different portions of the property. At present all the 
blocks constituting the old gold leases have been amalgamated into one 
property— the New England Scheelite property. 

" The workings on the reefs are confined solely to the coarse granite 
area. The reefs approximate closely in both strike and dip to the more 
important lodes of the Hillgrove gold-field. Of recent years the gold of 
the reefs has been found to give place, in patches, to masses of scheelite. 
In the upper portions of Nos. 1 and 2 lodes the scheelite was of very 
good quality. Mr. Fuller, of Hillgrove, informs me that at a depth of 
300 feet below the surface a large body of low-grade lime tungstate has 
been exposed in places as much as 3 feet wide. 

" Both gold and scheelite have been won by means of tunnels driven 
into the hillside. 

" No. 1 tunnel, 20 feet above the creek, bears 15° north of west, and 
is 1,176 feet long. About 400 feet from the mouth of the tunnel No. 2 
reef was cut. This has a strike of 35° north of west, and is thrown some 
5 feet to the south by a cross course near the point of intersection with 
the tunnel. 

" A little further along Nos. 1 and 2 reefs have been stoped for a 
width of 20 feet, a height of about 50 feet, and a length of 60 feet. 

" In the chamber so formed machinery was set up for the sinking of a 
main underlay shaft. At a depth of 30 feet the sinking was abandoned. 
No. 2 tunnel, 110 feet above the creek, cuts No. 2 reef .some 50 feet 
from its mouth. The bearing of the reef here is 36° north of west. 
Here, also, a cross course has thrown the reef some 6 feet to the south. 

" No. 3 tunnel is driven on Nos. 1 and 2 lodes at a height of 170 feet 
above the creek bed. No. 4 tunnel is also driven on these lodes at a 
height of 220 feet above the creek. 

" Another vein, known as No. 3 lode, lies a little to the south of 
Nos. 1 and 2 lodes. Nos. 2 and 3 reefs are 15 feet apart in No. 2 level. 
The general dip of the reef is north-east at 80°. "t 
Jerry's Creek. — Near Crow Mountain, Parish Wilson, County Darling, 
Scheelite reported from this locality in north-west corner of parish. 

Kdly JiroB.' Scheelite and Tin Lode. — About 1 mile westerly from Stannifer. 
M.Tj. 30, Parish Herbert, County Gough. 

*Ann. Kept. Dept. Minei N. S. Wales, 1904, p. 142. 
t Mineral Resources No. 8. Kept, on Hillgrove Gold-field, 1900, p. 20. 



83 

Discovered by Kelly Bros, and P. Dwyer about 1905, and worked for about 
three years. 

The lodestuff is chloritic granite, with prominent felspars. No defined 
strike observable. Worked by an open cut 30 feet deep and 25 feet long. A 
little trenching along the assumed strike to the south-east, and a little 
driving from the bottom of the open cut. 

The width of lodestufi" was about 9 feet at surface, but lessened with 
depth. About 14 tons of tinstone were obtained by i-oasting, crushing, and 
sieving. 

The scheelite was similarly obtained as a marketable product, but the 
quantity secured is not known. A sample of the granitic lodestufF assayed 
in 1907 yielded : — 

07-2075.— Tungstic trioxide 36 per cent. 

Key's Scheelite Lode. — Hillgrove. Described by E. C. Andrews as — " have 
been proved for a distance of 320 feet along the lip of Baker's Creek Falls. 
It varies from 1 inch to 4 inches in width, and occurs in lenticular patches. 
Aluch of the ore won is found to contain over 60 per cent, of tungstic acid. 
From this lode, and another, but smaller, one lower down the hill, 20 tons 
were raised during last year.* 

Kiarra Lode. — In Portion 116, Parish Metz, County Sandon, on north side 
of Hillgrove-Armidale road, near Baker's Creek Falls. Held as a 3-acre 
Mineral Lease by F. H. Gibson. 

Discovered by Messrs. Gibson and H. Hubbert in May, 1907, in gneissic 
granite. The scheelite lens averaged about 2 inches in thickness for a 
horizontal distance of 57 feet, and was stoped to surface from 70 feet level ; 
20 tons of scheelite being obtained ; the owners averaging £13 per week each. 
Below 70 feet, the rock becoming hard, the mine was sold to N. Hubbert, 
who continued the shaft to 110 feet and then abandoned it, though wages 
were made for some weeks. It was subsequently held by Turner Bros. 

Ldnkey's Creek. — Musgrave Tin Lode. Scheelite and wolfram present in 
small proportion. 

Macdonald's Veins. — Glen Creek, Parish Paradise North, County Gough. 
Honey-coloured translucent scheelite recorded here.f 

Maddrick's Scheelite Lode. — Hillgrove. Described by E. C. Andrews as 
occurring " on the west side, and about half-way up the Baker's Creek Gully. 
It contains some pure scheelite ; 17 tons were raised during the last half- 
year.":]: See also Centennial Scheelite Mine, p. 79. 

Marohee. — Parish of, County Blaxland. M.L. 10 in this parish was taken 
up for tungsten ores. 

Montreal Station. — Sixteen miles from Cooraa. Scheelite from this locality 
was assayed in the Departmental Laboratory in 1910, and yielded as 
follows : — 

10-294.— Tungstic trioxide 69 per cent. 

Mt. Gifford, Lankey's Greek. — Parish Coppabella, County Goulburn. 

G. W. Card records a red variety of scheelite, associated with galena and 
quartz, from this locality .§ 

Mt. Gifford Silver-lead Mine. — Authorities 35, 37, within Reserve 27,849, 
Parish Coppabella, County Goulburn. 

• Mineral Resources No. 8. Kept, on the Hillgrrove Gold-field, 1900, p. 43. t David. Geol. Veg. Creek, 
1887, pp. 161-2. t Mineral Resource* No. 8. Kept, on Hillgrove Gold-field, 1900, p. 43. § Records 

Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1907, VIII, Pt. 3, p 3. 



84 

Scheelite was noted by the Writer in this mine in 1905, when inspecting 
the Coppabella Silver-lead discoveries. It occurred in small proportion in 
the above mine, associated with quartz, zinc-blende, galena, pyrites, and 
mispickel.* Probable the red variety described by Mr. Card came from tlie 
same lode. 

Mulyan. — Parish of. County Wellington, M.L. 265 in this parish wa» 
taken up for scheelite. 

Narrayol. — Parish of, County Gordon. M.Ls. 174 and 187 in this parish 
were taken up for scheelite and wolfram. 

Ifiindle. — In 1906, Inspector D. Milne reported scheelite at Pennyweight 
Flat, Nundle.t 

G. W. Card also records scheelite as " massive in quartz. "| 

M. Morrison, Senior Field Assistant, visited the Nundle District in March,. 
1910, and made the following notes on the occurrence of scheelite for the 
Writer : — 

Scheelite at Nundle. 

" No mining was being done for scheelite in the Nundle district at 
the time of my visit. 

" During the past four years desultory surface prospecting has been 
carried out at Happy Valley, about half a mile north-easterly of 
the post office, on what appears to be a belt of impregnated country 
rock. A quantity of scheelite associated with quartz and country rock 
was obtained on the surface. 

" The country rocks are mainly slates and tuffs. 

" While trenching on the hillside, with the object of locating a lode, 
W. Gazley obtained about 20 tons of stone containing scheelite. He 
estimates the stone contains about 15 per cent, tungstic acid, and pro- 
poses to crush and concentrate the ore. No defined lode has yet been 
found. Samples of scheelite associated with quartz and country rock 
were observed on some of the tips in the vicinity of Gazley's claim. A 
picked sample selected by me from one of the * tips,' and assayed in the 
Departmental Laboratory, gave a return of 11 "10 per cent, tungstic acid. 

" The scheelite occurs within 10 chains of Paul's antimony shaft, and 
is almost on the direct line of strike of the lode worked there. The 
scheelite may possibly occur in this lode, but the very limited amount of 
prospecting so far carried out is not sufficient to enable me to say. At 
Foley's Folly, about 3 miles north-westerly from Hanging Rock, several 
reefs have been worked for scheelite, and small parcels of ore obtained. 
As far as could be ascertained the scheelite is associated with quartz, 
and occurs mostly where the reef bulges out. Three distinct lines of 
reef have been worked. 

" During the past five years only about 1 ton of scheelite has been 
sent away from Nundle. 

" Messrs. Travenor and party, working at Foley's Folly, disposed of 
15 cwt. of ore, and still have about 5 cwt. on hand. 

" Messrs. Sipple and party disposed of 5 cwt. last year and 70 lb. this 
year. The average price obtained was £100 per ton. Several small 
parcels varying from a few pounds up to 25 lb. weight, have been disposed 
of by different prospectors. 

" Scheelite is said to occur in the Possum and Ruby Mine at Bowling 
Alley Point." 

• Ann. R«pt. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1905, p. 148. t Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, ISOe 

p. 84. J Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1907, VIII, Pt. 3, p. 3. 



85 



Oheron. — A sample of scheelite from this locality, submitted for assay in 
1899, yielded :— 

99-3203— Tungstic trioxide 68-37 percent. 

Parish Wilson. — County Darling. Between Barraba and Manilla, in 
Portions 134 and 135. 

Scheelite from these portions, submitted for assay in 1907, yielded : — 

07-2740 — Tungstic trioxide 23 per cent. 

Gold 5 dwt. per ton. 

Peelwood. — A sample of scheelite or cupro-scheelite from Peelwood (pro- 
bably from the Cordillera Mine in that locality) was assayed in the 
Departmental Laboratory, with the following results :— 

41-1886 — Tungstic trioxide 69'31 per cent. 

Lime 19 35 ,, 

Silica 4-88 

Oxide of copper 405 ,, 

Oxide of iron 2*01 ,, 

99-60 

Pepp's Flat, Copeton. — The tin ore which came down Two-mile Creek, from 
the high acid granite range at its head containing numerous stanniferous 
veins, at one spot close to the head of Pepp's Flat, was found by Mr. George 
White to be associated with a small quantity of scheelite and diamonds. 
The run of wash followed at this point di[)ped rapidly under the basalt sheet 
which forms the flat, and extends to Copeton. Water and the steep dip 
compelled cessation of operations. 

Queanbeyan. — G. W. Card records scheelite with hornblende from 
Quean beyan.* 

Sofala. — Scheelite in small quantity in quartz is reported to occur near 
Sofala. 

Top Lode, West Sunlight. — Portion 58, Parish Metz, County Sandon^ 
adjoining the village of Metz, on the west side of Baker's Creek Gorge ; on 
the tableland just above the West Sunlight Gold ]\Iine. 

This lode was originally worked for antimony down to about 80 feet ; for 
scheelite in addition since December, 1909. "The latter mineral has been 
followed down 60 feet below the 80 feet level, and the present shoot has 
been driven on for a length of 21 feet, with ore still in face on 19th May, 
1911. Where quartz makes in the lode, the scheelite diminishes. 

The Writer is indebted to Mr. E. McNamara for the following particulars- 
of output from this portion of the lode to the date mentioned : — 





Scheelite. 


Antimony. 


McNamara's Workings, Portion 58 

Hardcastle's Workings, Portion 58 


tons. cwt. qrs. 
5 16 1 
9 3 


lb. 
10 
17 


tons. cwt. qrs. lb. 

27 3 1 13 

6 25 


Totals 


6 6 


27 


33 3 2 10 







Flood's line of lode in Portion 58, near the Top lode, strikes N. 40° W., 
and has been worked for scheelite down to 60 feet. 

From this lode the following output of scheelite was obtained between 
March and October, 1907 : — 

2 tons 13 cwt. 2 qrs. 19 lb. 

* Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1900, VII, Pt. 2, p. 46. 



86 

Tuena. — 1^ miles west. G. W. Card records a brown variety of scheelite 
■with quartz from Tuena.* Its presence here was first noted in 1899, when 
a prospecting party was engaged opening a small but rich vein of scheelite, 
close to the Police Paddock, on the west of Tuena. t A sample assayed in 
1905 (2827) yielded tungstic trioxide 36-63 per cent. 

M. Morrison, Senior Field Assistant, visited the locality in April, 1911, 
and furnished data for the following notes : — 

The scheelite ocnurs in small patches in a quartz reef, striking north and 
south in intercalated slate and limestone country. The locality being M.Ls. 
113 and 114, Parish Yarraman, County Georgiana, a few chains west of the 
police paddock at Tuena. 

So far only surface work has been carried out, proving the scheelite for a 
horizontal distance of about 70 feet, and a deptli of 10 to 15 feet, but little 
or none is now visible. So far as could be learned no ore was raised unti 
1910, when Messrs. Russell and party obtained about 1^ tons of scheelite by 
linking shallow holes along the strike of the reef, which appears to have been 
the total output to date. 

Uralla. — Easterly, and 12 miles east. Samples of scheelite from this 
locality — so described — assayed in 1905, yielded : — 

05-777 — Tungstic trioxide 41'45 per cent. 

05-821— Tungstic trioxide 30-25 „ 

Usher's Lode, Hillgrove (now Damifino). — The aspect of this lode in 1904 
is thus described by E. C. Andrews : — 

" True fissure in solid granite near contact with slates. Strike about 
N. 30° W. ; dip westerly, almost vertical. The outcrop has been proved 
over a distance of some 350 feet. The width of the vein varies from 
2 to 6 inches. The scheelite at times was as much as 6 inches in 
width (in Hat lenses). The gangue along the surface workings was 
mostly stibnite, very little quartz occurring. A tunnel was driven 
last year (1904) into the hillside to prove the reef at a lower level. 
At this depth (140 feet) the fissure was well defined, but narrower. 
The scheelite was some 2 to 3 inches in width, with a coating of stibnite 
on the hanging wall. Very little quartz was noticeable at this depth. 
The length of the outcrop (350 feet) may be taken as a fair measure of 
its probable continuation in depth." J 
See also p. 
Wood's Reef. — 5 miles east, Barraba District. A sample of scheelite sub- 
mitted for assay from this locality in 1905, yielded : — 

05-593— Tungstic trioxide 4077 per cent. 

Woolomin, about 4 miles south. Scheelite from this site, submitted for 
assay in 1908, yielded : — 

08-.3560 —Tungstic trioxide 69 per cent. 

Yeoval. Taylors Cyclops Copper Mine, Lower Tinby. — Portion 93, Parish 
Obley, County Gordon. 

The occurrence of cupro-scheelite in this mine has been described by G. W. 
Card as follows : — 

" This mineral has recently been detected at Taylor's Copper Mine, 
Upper [Lower. — J.E.C.] Tinby, close to Yeoval. The ore consists of 
bomite, with copper carbonates, and the cupro-scheelite is closely 
associated with it. It is waxy in appearance, and, while sometimes 

• Record* Oeol. Buney N. S. Wales, VII, Pt. 2, 19r;2, p. 46. t Ann. Rept. Dept. Minea N. S. Wales 

1899, p. 76. X Ann. Rept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1004, p. 142. 



87 

whiter, is generally of a greenish tint. In places retangular outlines 
can be seen. Cuproscheelite is known to occur at Peelwood [Cordillera 
Hill. — J.E.C.], where it is intimately associated with scheelite and 
stolzite. An analysis of a sample picked from the material most nearly 
free from colour, gave results as follows : — 

Per Cf nt. 

Moisture and combined water 2*55 

Tungstic trioxide 57-73 (66-7) 

Lime 14-40 

Magnesia 0-22 

Ferric oxide 298 

Alumina trace 

Copper oxide 7-08 (8-18) 

Molybdic oxide trace 

Carbonic oxide 1 '56 

Gangue 1304 

99-56 
" Neglecting the gangue, and re-calculating, the percentages of copper 
and tungstic trioxide become respectively 8-18 and 66-7. The percentage 
of tungstic trioxide is rather low, but there is not enough carbonic acid 
to account for the copper."* 

* Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, V, 1896-8, p. 122. 



88 



YIIb.— CUPRO-SCHEELITE DEPOSITS. 

Cu PRO-SCHEELITE. 

Back Creek, near Rockley. — Parish Rockley, County Georgiana. Cupro- 
scheelite is reported from this locality. 

Cordillera Hill. — Parish Cordillera, County Georgiana, Tuena district. 

Scheelite, cupro-scheelite, and stolzite were discovered in the Cordillera 
Hill sDver and copper lode in 1888, but these minerals were not specifically 
searched for. 

A sample of massive cupro-scheelite of a dark greenish colour yielded — 

Tungstic trioxide 69'31 per cent. 

Lime 19-35 ,, 

Silica 4-88 ,, 

Copper oxide 4*05 ,, 

Iron oxide 2"01 ,, 

99-60 
Prior to this date, Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.I.C, F.C.S., detected the presence 
of stolzite (tungstate of lead) in the above lode. 

Orange. — Cupro-scheelite from this locality was assayed in 1899 for the 
following return : — 

99-3985 — Tungstic trioxide 68-35 per cent. 

Metallic copper 2*56 „ 



89 



VIIc— STOLZITE (TUNGSTATE OF LEAD) OCCURRENCES. 

Alick Steyne Creek. — Parish Highland Home, County Gough. 

Stolzite is recorded by G. W. Card from this locality, associated with 
wolfram and scheelite.* 

Broken Hill Lode. — Stolzite was obtained in the oxidised zone of this. 
lode. 

G. W. Card described its occurrence as follows : — 

"This comparatively rare mineral, a tungstate of lead, is now being 
found in at least two different forms. One variety is of a grey colour, 
with a pearly lustre, and resembles the head of a nail in appearance, the 
crystals consisting of faces of the tetragonal prism, terminated by a low 
pyramid of the same order. 

" The other variety is apparently only found in the Open Cut at the 
Proprietary Mine. It is yellow-brown in colour, and the crystals con- 
sist essentially of the tetragonal prism. The basal plane and pyramid 
of different order are sometimes present. One of the largest crystals has 
a length of nearly a centimetre."! 

Another form is described as "claret-coloured, pyramidal, perhaps 
hemihedral."J 

C. Hlawatsch has described Broken Hill stolzite in yellow and reddish 
crystals, and quoted the following analysis by Professor Treadwell, of 
Zurich :— § 

Tungstic trioxide (WOj) 5134 per cent. 

Lead oxide (PbO) 4744 „ 

Manganese oxide (MnO) 0-78 ,, 

Magnesia (MgO) trace 

99-56 
Emmaville, near. — A sample of stolzite from the locality thus broadly 
defined was submitted for assay in 1905, and yielded — 

05-5443 Tungstic trioxide 57"1 percent. 

Metalliclead 9-49 ,, 

* Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, VIII, 1905-9, Pt. 3, p. 259. t Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 

896, V, Pt. 1, p. 8. t Op. cit., Pt. 3, p. 122. § Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, VI, pp. 53 to 67 



90 



Till.— METALLIC MINERALS ASSOCIATED WITH TUNGSTEN 

ORES. 

Bismuth is an invariable associate of the tungsten deposits of the Mole 
Tableland, though occurring in varying proportions ; the richest occurrence 
being in the " Bismuth " Mine of the Torrington Ore Company, Limited, 
^vhere native and sulphide of bismuth is in commercial quantity in the 
pegmatite lodestutf worked in that mine. The wolfram concentrates from 
this mine and Fielder's Hill (which are worked in conjunction) average about 
€ to 8 per cent, of bismuth. 

In the essentially wolfram mines, bismuth ores of considerable richness 
occur occasionally in more or less limited quantity ; but the general average 
yield is below the commercial limit, at least so far as the sellers are con- 
cerned. At ;Mount Everard some rich carbonate and oxide (and lesser 
native bismuth) have been obtained. 

Antimony (stibnite) is a common associate of scheelite at Hillgrove, the 
former predominating in many of the auriferous lodes of the district. The 
low and uncertain value of antimony has hitherto prevented vigorous 
development for that metal alone. The increased value of scheelite may, 
however, lead to their reopening, as the two minerals are separable over 
concentrating tables into commercial grades. 

Molybdenite is also a common associate of wolfram, but not in workable 
proportion in the principal field. At Kingsgate, 18 miles easterly from Glen 
Innes, in the famous Sach's Mine, phenomenally massive molybdenite 
occurred, blocks up to 600 lb. of pure ore being obtained. Here a payable 
concentrate of molybdenite and bismuth was obtained over vanners for some 
years. 

Cobalt, in the form of smaltine (arsenide), occurs in the Bismuth Mine, 
near Torrington, for an analysis of which see page 71. 

Ilmenite (titaniferous iron) is present in some of the Torrington lodes ; and 
in one instance at Cow Flat is reported to have cut out the wolfram. 

Cassiterite is not actually associated with the wolfram at Torrington, but 
occurs in close proximity at Fielder's Hill — where small parallel seams occur 
in a neighbouring outcrop. 

At the Glen Eden Mine, Hogue's Creek, near Pundee, it is more intimately 
connected; rich veins of finely- crystallized cassiterite occurring in the 
wolfram-bearing lodes. 

Cassiterite is also closely associated with wolfram at Pulletopand Jingellic. 
Copper and arsenical pyrites frequently occur in the Gulf wolfram lodes 
but are not conspicuous at Torrington. 



91 



VIIIa.— NON-METALLIC MINERALS ASSOCIATED WITH 
TUNGSTEN DEPOSTIS. 

Monazite is a common, but not abundant, associate of the tin and tungsten 
deposits of New England, as well as of the beach sands of the North Coast. 
The chief value of this complex mixture of rare earths depends upon its thoria 
contents. The utilization of the latter in the preparation of incandescent 
mantels for gas burners directed considerable attention to monazite. Numer- 
ous samples from widely separated localities have been assayed, but in rare 
instances only has the commercial minimum of thoria (2 per cent.) been 
reached. 

W. A. Dixon, in 1881, analysed a sample of monazite from Vegetable 
Creek district, with the following results : — 

Phosphoric acid 25-09 

Oxide of cerium 36'64 

" lanthanum \ g^.g^ 

,, didymium J 

„ thorium 1*23 

,, manganese traces 

,, magnesium traces 

, , aluminium 3'11 

Silica 3-21 

99-49 
" The mineral was crystalline, but the crystals were broken and ill-defined. 
One piece, however, appeared to be a monoclinic prism. Colour, yellowish 
red, in thin pieces semi-transparent ; it gave a white streak, showing a hard- 
ness about 5 ; it was rather brittle, and gave a yellowish powder infusible 
before the blow-pipe."* 

C. S. Wilkinson, in 1883, recorded monazite in this district, about 20 chains 
from Butchart's Nugget Mine in Portions 9 and 10, Parish Muir, County Gough. 
It was here associated with amethystine quartz, fluor-spar, and pyrites. 

In 1903, J. C. H. Mingayef analysed a sample of monazite from 11 miles 
north-west of Deepwater (about Battery Mountain), with the following 
resultj : — 

03-2930— Oxide of Cerium, CcoOj ] 

,, Lanthanum, La-)0<! f _„ „, , 

„ Didymium, Di A V^''^ P^' '^°*- 

,, Yttrium, Y^O, ) 

Thorium, ThOj -77 „ 

Monazite from " Black Swamp " was assayed by J. C. H. Mingaye with a, 
view of determination of its thoria contents, with the following results : — 
No. 07-7725— I. II. 

Per cent. Per cent. 
Rare earths of the Cerium group, as oxides, 69 '40 69 '28 

including thoria (ThO->). 

Thoria (ThO-,) ' 4-12 4-10 

Phosphoric anhydride (P20s) 25"75 

" This sample is the best so far examined of the New South Wales 
monazites, and, if it occurs in sufficient quantity, should prove of commercial 
value for the extraction of the thoria contents. "§ (It is not, however, in 
commercial quantity. — J.E.C.) 

* Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1881, p. 36. t Mr. Mingaye, in 1909, published a paper on 

" Experiments on the Estimation of Thoria in Monazite." Records Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, VIII, 1909, 
Pt. 4, pp. 276-286. t Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N. S. Wales, 1903, p. 138. § Records Geol. Survey N. S. 

Wales, VIII, 1905-9, Pt. 4, p. 283. 



92 



The following samples of mouazite-bearing sands have been examined from 
Torrington and The Gulf : — 

Per cent. 





u 4 


£.2.3. 
4 


s.S.o_ 
4 


Hi^ 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2.13.x. 
4 


4 


Oxide of the rare earths 
of the Cerium Group 
—i.e., CeaOj, LajOj, 
DijOj, Y2O3. 

Thoria (ThOa) 


29-30 
0-65 


72-30 
0-38 


67 12 

0-71 
4-98 


63-39 
1-56 


54-37 
1-81 


41-84 
0-31 


71-11 
0-35 


17-03 

0-75 
6-'35 


15-15 

oz. dwt. grs. 
per ton. 
1 19 4 


22-46 


Metallic Bismuth 

Metallic Tin 




Chromium Sesquioxide . . 
Fine Gold 


oz. dwt. gra. 
per ton. 
19 12 




1 4 11 







Nos. 879, 880— From Torrington. 
„ 1178, 1179—20 miles west of Torrington. 
„ 849, 1567, 2493— The Gulf, Eramaville district. 
,, 3033 — Camden Haven ^ 
,, 3131 — Tacking Point [ Beach sands. 
„ 3401 — Port Macquarie ) 

Monazite, as already mentioned, is an associate of gold, platinum, and 
cassiterite in the North Coast beach sands, particularly between the Clarence 
and Richmond River heads. The following analyses by J. C. H. Mingaye* 
■are given for comparison with the Torrington and Gulf mineral. 

The samples analysed consisted of highly concentrated sand from Broken 
Head, Ballina, near the mouth of the Richmond River. The average 
proportion of monazite in the beach sands is infinitesimal, and it is only in 
reconcentration of the carpet concentrates obtained in winning the gold and 
platinum that an appreciable quantity is obtainable : — 

I. II. 

Phosphoric anhydride (P2O5) 18-89 18-94 

Oxide of Cerium (CjOs) 22-42 22-72 

,, Lanthanum (La^Os) 1 22*95 22'78 

,, Didymium (DiaOg) j 

,, Yttrium (¥203) '16 not determined. 

Thorium (ThOj) '46 '57 

Silica (SiOa) 6-68 6-48 

Alumina (AlA) "14 -19 

Ferric oxide (FesOg) 2-08 1-96 

Manganous oxide (MnO) trace trace 

Lime (CaO) 1-32 r40 

Magnesia (MgO) trace trace 

Oxide of Zirconium (ZrOa) 15-36 15-44 

Tint(Sn02) 9-03 9-12 

Tantalum (TajOs) MO 86 

,, Titanium (Ti02J absent absent 

Water (H2O) -10 -12 

100-69 100 58 

Fluor-spar is a common associate, and at Runisby's Lode, at The Gulf, it 
formed a considerable part of the matrix, large masses of rich green fluor- 
spar being obtainable ; in part well crystallized. 

At the Torrington lodes it is present, but not in appreciable quantity. 

• Records Geo). Survey N. S. Wales, Vol. VII, 1903, p. 222. t Metallic tin, 7-11 per cent. 



93 

Topaz, both massive and crystallized, is common in the Torrington ore- 
rock ; in fact, Mr. G. W. Card, on microscopic examination, found it to be one 
of the constituents of the lode-rock. It is readily recognised in many of the 
-outcrops, and particularly at the new quarry in Hawkins' Lease, at Black 
Swamp. Doubtless the numerous water-worn topazes found during early 
tin-mining in the channels and leads of the district, were derived from this 
rock, and from the parent granite massif. 

It is interesting to note that topaz was first noted in New South Wales in 
1811.* 

Beryl occurs in particularly fine crystals as regards form. Heffernan 
Bros.' Mine (M.L. 52, Parish Highland Home, County Gough) furnishing 
some of the best presented to the Mining Museum. 

Smith's Lease (M.L. 65, Parish Rock Vale, County Clive) affords slender 
acicular crystals in biotite. This gem in water-worn pebbles was also common 
in the early alluvial tin leads. 

Lithia-hearing Mica occurs at the Bismuth Mine, and possibly at Smith's 
Lease, as pointed out by G. W. Card (page 42). The percentage of lithia, 
however, is so small as to raise doubt whether it is sufficient to remove the 
mica from the ordinary biotite group. 

* G. Pateraon, History of N. S. Wales, 1811, p. 43. 



9-t 



IX.— STATISTICS. 

Hillgrove District. — Scheelite is the only tungsten mineral occurring in this 
district, and this is the only locality so far discovered in the State where it 
occurs in commercial quantities. The first authentic record of its occurrence 
was in 1886, when a sample from Gara Falls tested in the Departmental 
Laboratory yielded 4 7 "9 per cent, of tungstic acid.* 

In this year alao a sample from near Peelwood yielded 69*31,t probahly from 
the known occurrence at Cordillera Hill. 

In 1887 it was recorded that scheelite occurred at Hillgrove, but was not 
being worked. 

In 1892 attention began to be directed to the Hillgrove deposits, for 
twenty-two assays of scheelite were made during that year, ranging from 38 
to 71 per cent, of tungstic acid. 

In 1893 samples of scheelite with stibnite from Hillgrove were assayed for 
51-23 and 71*65 per cent, of tungstic acid. 

Mining evidently did not begin until 1898, when about 1^ tons of scheelite 
valued at about £30, are recorded as having been obtained from the Hope 
toun Mine. The ore appeared as a small shoot, but soon pinched out. J 

Active operations ensued in 1899, 70 tons being sold, valued at £2,750. 
During the last quarter of the year 76 tons were raised. The Hopetoun 
Syndicate (Metz) sold 4 tons at an average of £40 per ton, and at the close 
of the year had 70 tons of undressed ore at grass. Between thirty and forty 
men were employed on the antimony and scheelite patches.§ 

During 1900 scheelite was won in the Hillgrove field, the quality varying 
from 50 to 60 per cent, of tungstic acid. Deducting the value of wolfram 
exported, that of scheelite reached £1,782. 

During 1901 the total value of the output of tungsten minerals only 
amounted to £163, the serious fall in values checking operations. 

Apparently none were exported in 1 902. 

In 1903 Hillgrove furnished 3 tons of scheelite, valued at £140. Little 
work was done, as the demand was slight. 

During 1904 satisfactory values gave an impetus to mining, 15^ tons of 
scheelite being exported, of a value of £1,406. 

In 1905 the output increased to 138-30 tons, valued at £10,122. About 
fifty miners were employed scheelite mining. The average local price obtained 
was £65 per ton. 

In 1906 the output of scheelite — practically all from Hillgrove — amounted 
to 109-4 tons, valued at £7,647, the greater proportion coming from Miller's 
Freehold. 

During 1907 the export amounted to 196 tons, valued at £23,781. Values 
fluctuatefl gnjatly during the year — ranging from £50 to £150 per ton for 
concentrates. 

In 1908 153-7 tons were raised, valued at £11,082, the best results being 
obtained from Miller's Freehold, Portion 116, Parish Metz, County Sandon. 



• Aon. Kept. Dept. Mines N. 8. Walen, 188«, p. 41. f Ibid. } llnd., 1898, p. 75. § Ibid., 1899, p. 76. 



95 



The yield for 1909 amounted to 193-30 tons, valued at £14,618. The local 
prices ranged from £65 to £130 per ton of 72 per cent, ore, the two chief 
producing mines being those of W. H. Cranston and party and E 
McNamara's. 



In 1910 the output was 150-6 tons, valued at £15,747. 
averaged £103 per ton during the year. 



The local prices 



Total output of Scheelite in New South Wales from 1898 to 1910 :- 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Remarks. 


1898 


tons. 
1-25 
70-0 
45-3 


£ 
30 
2,750 
1,782 


From Hopetoun Mine, Hillgrove. 


1899 




1900 




1901 


£163 total for scheelite and wolfram. 


19'2 






No output. 


1903 


30 
15 5 
138-3 
109-4 
19915 
153-7 
193-3 
150-6 


140 
1,406 
10,122 
7,647 
24,163 
11,082 
14,618 
15,747 


1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 


3-15 tons included from Nundle. 


1908 




1909 




1910 


1-25 tons included from Tuena. 








1,079-50 


£90,787 





List of Scheelite Leases in force at Hillgrove in May, 1911 : — 



Parish. 



County. 



H enry George Maddrick 

Thomas Pedlow 

Harvey Hubbert 

Joseph White 

Michael Cox, Samuel Hoydon 
and Isaac Hogue. 

Thomas Keys 

Oliver Scott Rowe 

Archibald Milton Hoyes .. 

Edward Cleary McNamara . .. 

Thomas Perks 

Francis Henry Gibson 

Walter Maddrick 

Henry George Maddrick 

John Charles Boss 

Cosmopolitan G. M. Company.. 

William Henry Logan 

Patrick Denis Ryan 

Henry George Maddrick 

William L. Smith 

Patrick Denis Ryan 

William H. Cranston 

Nelson Hubbert 

James Selby 

Kobert Sharp 



a. r. p. 

2 

4 

5 3 37 
5 

2 

5 

I 

10 

5 

2 2 
8 

20 

12 1 25 

5 

2 



37 



10 

1 
1 

3 
5 
1 2 



Metz 


Sandon ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


Cooney ... 


do ... 


Metz 


do ... 


Cooney .. 


do ... 


Metz 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 


do 


do ... 



Part of forfeited 
M.L. 30. 
M.L. 51 
M.L. 41 
M.L. 63 
M.L. 82 

M.L. 33 
M.L. 81 
M.L. 32 
M.L. 17 
M.T. 17 
M.L. 80 
M.L. 79 
M.L. 38 
M.L. 16 
G.L. 
M.L. 
M.T. 
M.L. 
P. M.L. 6 
M.L. 72 
M.P.L. 5 
P. M.L. 4 
P. M.L. 6 
M.L. 70 



37 
74 
16 
73 



96 



Output of tungsten ores in New South Wales during 1910: — 

Tungsten Ores-* 
Scheelite. 
" The quantity of scheelite exported during the year is 150"6 tons, 
valued at £15, 7 4 7, as compared with 193-3 tons, valued at £14,61 8, in 1909. 
" In the Hillgi-ove Division, numbers of men were engaged searching 
for this mineral, and generally were rewarded with fair returns. The 
surface veins, however, are being gradually worked out. The matter of 
prosecuting work at the deeper levels was engaging attention at the 
close of the year, and it was proposed to reopen and systematically 
develop several of the old mines. The price paid on this field during 
the period under review averaged £103 per ton for 70 per cent. ore. 
"A parcel of 1-25 tons of scheelite was obtained from the Tuena Division. 

Wolfra in. 

" The quantity of wolfram exported during 1910 amounted to 165-67 tons, 
valued at £16,258, as compared with 127 tons, valued at £11,249, in the 
year 1909. 

" In the neighbourhood of Torrington, in the Deepwater Division, con 
siderable activity was manifested, £20,000 approximately being spent in the 
erection of reduction plants. The principal producers were : — The Torrington 
Ore Company (Limited), the Rockvale Wolfram Mines, and the New Hope 
W^olfram Mining Company. 

" In the Glen Innes Division, the mine on the private property of E. J. 
Newsome was worked by W. J. Gould, the output being valued at £700. 

"From Pulletop, in the Wagga Wagga Division, some 15 tons of wolfram 
ore were obtained." 

Total output of Wolfram in New South Wales (compiled from Mineral 
Resources, 1901, and the Annual Reports of the Department of Mines). 



Tons. 



1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 

1906 
1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 



7-00 


70 


' 1-38 


14 


5 -00 


88 


9-6o 


'"280 


b-2b 


"315 
163 



9-00 
89 00 
86-50 

13215 
206-75 

8615 

127 00 

165-67 
929-85 



608 
8,432 
7,361 

9,057 
26,235 

6,742 

11,249 

16.2 58 
£88,068 



No record. 

No record. 

No record. 
No record. 

No record. 

Fall in value checked operations. 

No record. 

Demand slight ; little work done. 

Small quantities from Wilson's Downfall, (ilen Innes, Pulle- 
top, Berridale, and Frogmore. 

£15,187 from Torrington Ore Company ; £2,400 from Went- 
worth Proprietary ; £403 from Wilson's Downfall. 

Torrington Ore Company closed from March to October owing 
to low price of mineral. 

Torrington Ore Company treated 10,455 tons of ore for 93 ton« 
of concentrates ; New Hope Company obtained 25 tons. 

About £20,000 spent in erection of new reduction plants. 



Ann. Kept. Dept. Mines N.8. Wales, 1910, p. 67. 



97 



COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. 



JODUCTION of Tungsten Ores from 1900-1910. — Compiled frum Annual Reports of the Departments 
of Mines, the Queensland Mining Journal (1910), and Official Year Book of the Commonwealth. 



New South Wales. ; Victoria. 



Quantity. Value. , 'quantity. Value, 



Queensland. 



Quantity. Value. 



South Australia 

(Northern ; West Australia. 
Territory). 



Qua'itity. Value. Qu-iitity. Value. ; Quantity. V^alue. 



Tasmania. 





tons. 


£ 


tons. 


£ 


tons. 


£ 


tons 




£ 


tons. 




£ 


tons. 


£ 


900 


(?) 


1,913 






189-5 


6,605 








53-75 


2,058 


iWl 


(?) 


163 






72-0 


1,145 
















iK)i> 










55-0 


1,167 


















Wi 


']8-0 


4-20 






197-0 


7,870 


















[K)4 


104-5 


9,. 578 






1,539 5 


161,710 














15-5 


1,147 


DOS 


224-8 


17,483 






1,413-0 


100,203 














32.25 


2,371 


J06 


241-6 


16,704 






772-5 


64,483 






7,000 








19-75 


1,465 


m 


402-7 


50,016 






617 5 


90,087 






11,4.50 








40-75 


4,411 


W8 


239-8 


17,824 


3 


252 


420-7 


32,792 






542 








4-5 


338 


Ji)9 


320-3 


25,867 


14 


1,432 


606 2 


56,348 






4,105 


i 


90 


28-35 


2,494 


no 


317-5 


32,110 


28 


2,092 


879-4 


90,761 








2 


190 


67-35 


7,280 




1,869-2 


172,078 


45 


3,776 


7,262-3 


613,171 






3 , 280 


■262-20 


21,564 



Total productioii of tuntjsten ores in New South Wales to end of 1910, 2,013-6 tons ; value, £178,960. 



Worlds Production of Tungsten Ore, 1905-1909, by countries, estimated in 
short tons of concentrates containing 60 per cent, of tungsten trioxide.* 



Countrv. 



1906. 



Africa — South Africa 

Asia - 

Federated Malay States ... 

Siam 

India 

Australia — 

Nesv Soutli Wales 

Northern Territory 

(Queensland 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

We.steru Australia 

East Indies — 

Hilliton 

Singkep 

Europe — 

Austria 

England 

France 

(ierman Empire 

Italy 

Portugal 

Spain 

Oceania — New Zealand 

North America — United States 
South America — 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 



251 

71 

1,582 

36 



65 

193 

28 

42 

3'o 

3-2u 

413 

64 

803 



75 



9 
151 



270 

230 

865 

22 



63 

304 

I 20 

57 

! 28 

629 

I 222 

; 121 

! 928 

I 326 

I 75 



211 


40 


1 89 


83 


10 




451 


268 


177 


9 


703 


516 


46 


5 




3 


1 




4 


11 


1 


14 


50 


44 


361 


261 


67 


124 


68 


46 


18 




702 


684 


303 


249 


153 


87 


1,640 


671 


507 


548 


500 


187 




16 


6,062 


3,898 



16 



99 



431 
49 

679 

20 

15 

6 



I 23 

43 

j 421 

106 

609 

78 
1,619 

900 
168 

5,289 



* Min. Resources, Geol. Survey— Quoted by the Mineral Industry, XIX, 1910, p. 665. 
49— D 



98 



United States production of Tungsten Ores from 1900 to 1910, inclusive.* 



Year. 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 



Quantity. 


Value in dollars 


short tons. 


$ 


46 


11.040 


179 


27,720 


184 


34,040 


292 


43,639 


740 


184,000 


803 


268,676 


928 


348,867t 


1,640 


890,048t 


671 


229,955t 


1,619 


614,370t 


2,020 


844,526 



Prices. 

The following diagram (after O. J. Steinhart, the Mineral Industry, XVII, 
1908, p. 826, with additions from London quotations in the Australian 
Mining Standard) illustrates at a glance the extreme fluctuations in market 
value of tungsten ores per unit in the past, and their more equable range 
during the past two years. : — 

,- 1897 1698 183" 1900 1901 190? 1903 1904 1305 I30G 1307 1908 1909 1310 1311 



4-5 
40 

I// 

C25 



1 I 




1 






1 


i\ 








1 










j\ 
































/ 




/ 


\.l. 




/ 
















/ 




A r 




VI' 




/ 


\ 








, 


1 ^ 


\ 


y 




\ 


J 








/ 


\ 












\/ 






v 










/ 




\ 






/ 


















/ 




\ 




^ 


/ 


















1 


1 






















1 



Fiu. 12. 



The value of the concen crates, apart from the percentage of tungstic oxide, 
is affected by the freedom or otherwise from impurities, such as phosphorus 
and sulphur. 

According to the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute,t " information as to 
the actual Vjasis of purchase is not readily obtainable, but it is stated that the 
phosphorus and sul[)hur should not much exceed 025 and 001 per cent, 
respectively." 



• statistics rejjorted by the U.S. Oeol. Survey, except for 1910. The Mineral Industry, XIX, 1910, p. 661. 

t Vol. VII, No. S, 1909, p. 291. 

{Since the beidnninK of 1!Kj6, the fitfures have heen, a« far as possible, made to represent the e(|uivalent 
of ore« carrying 00 jier cent. WO., which is the ordinary (X)niinercial basis in the United States. 



GEOLOGICAL MAP 

SHOWING THE 

MOLE TABLELAND WOLFRAM DEPOSITS 



B I N C H I 







V- 



\a6 \ \ \ ML 67 \\ .- • ;_ . 



Cxahams Scrubby Cu/I^ 



^^' 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Adelong 78. 

Advance Syndicate 78 

Alaskite 42 

Albury 50 

Alick Steyne Creek 50, 78, 89 

,, ,, Gullv 52, 54 

Alloys : 16, 19 

Alton 57 

Amosfield 58 

Analyses — 

Arsenical ore 70 

Concentrates, Black Swamp .... Tti 

., Torrington 69 

Crushed wolfram 70 

Cuproscheelite 87 

Granite, Hillgrove 45 

Hubnerite 21 

Kaolin 42 

Monazit« 91,93 

Scheelite 78 

Tailings 70 

Wolframite 22-23 

Andrews, E. C 35-37, 42, 47, 50, 66, 67 

71,76,77,81,82,83,84,86 

Antimony 90 

Armidale 50 

Armour-plate 17 

Arsenical pyrites 90 

Associated minerals 90 

,, ,, non-metallic 91 

Back Creek 50, 57, 88 

Baker's Creek 49, 80 

Bald Hill 60 

Bald Rock Creek 64 

Ballina 92 

Barraba 50,86 

Barrier Ranges 50,58 

Bas.'etti, T 63 

Bates 76 

Bell'sClaim 60 

Berridale 50 

Beryl 93 

Big Lode 51 

Bingara 51 

Binley and Sons' mine 78 

Birlong 50 

Bismuth 33,90 

End 73 

-Mine 43,44,68,71 

Black Swamp 51,53,64,91 

Bob s Swamp .55 

Bogenrieder C 36-37 

Bombal.i 51 

Bottenl, J 55 

Bourke's Creek 51, 59, 67 

Bowling Alley Point 79 

Bradshaw's Lode 51 

Brady and Watson 68 

Brickwood Lode 52 



PAGE. 

Brisbane Valley 61 

Broken Head ! 92 

Broken Hill Lode 89 

Block 14 Coy 74 

Brown's Claim Lode 52 

Creek 79 

Brvden's Lode 52 

Bullfrog Lode 24,78 

Bundarra 52 

Bung Lode 63 

Bungs 30 

Burrandana 51, 52, 59, 60 

Biirrowa 52 

Butler Lodes 29 

Tin Lode 52 



Cambage, R. H 7 

Cameron, W. E 32, 33 

Card, G. W 42,46,52,54,83,85,86 

89,93 

Carl, P. H 31 

Carri 79 

Carter's Back Lode 52 

Cut 44 

Hill 52,60 

,, Lease 65 

,, Lode 52 

Cathcart 53 

Carthew, J 81,82 

Casino 53 

Cassiterite 90 

Cemetery Creek Lode 53 

Centennial Scheelite Mine 79 

Chinaman's Lode 53 

Clapliam and Townsend's Lode 53 

Cobalt 90 

Coghlan's Lode 53 

Colorado 25,26,30,31 

Concentration 24-27 

Conder, H 33-34 

Condobolin 53, 61 

Conran, R. H 28-29 

Coolamatong 50 

Cooma 83 

Copeton 53, 85 

Coppabella 53,83 

Copper pyrites 90 

Cordillera Hill 88 

Mine 85 

Cornish. Treatment 28-29 

Cosgrove's Lode 53 

Coss, G 80 

Cow Flat 54,63,64,77 

Mine 64 

Cranston and Party 80 

Crow Mount 81,82 

Crowe's Claim 54 

CufF. E 79 

Cubillo, L 16 



100 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Cuproscheelite 88 

Currajong 62 

Curry's Lode 80 

Oamilino Lode 80, 86 

Oavid, T. W. E 56 

Davis and Cuff 79 

Davison's Lode _ 54 

Deepwater 54,91 

Dine Dine 54 

Ding Dong 54 

Dingo Gully 52,54,55,60 

Dodger Lode 54 

Donohoe Bros 55 

Lode 54 

Ducknialoi Creek 55 

Dnckmaloi 63 

Dundee 55 

Z)unstan, B 32 

Dwyer, P 83 

Eason, G 56,61 

Eleauora Reef 'SI 

Elliott Bros : 54 

,, ,, Lode 55 

,, and Hore's Lode 55 

,, C. E 55 

Elsmere, J 80 

Elsmore Hill 55 

Emmaville 50,56,89 

Erinieran Range •"'"> 

Essington 56 

Eurambil 56 

Falls 81 

Ferberite 21 

Fielder's Hill 37-39,56,68 

Flagstone 56 

Fleming, AV. L 17,25,30 

Fletcher, J 66 

Fluorspar 92 

Flynn Bros.' Lode 84 

Foley's Folly ^ 84 

Frogmore 52,56,57,81 

Gara Falls 57 

Gedde.s' Estate 81 

Germanton 57 

Gibson, F. H 24,78 

Gib.'ion and Hubbert 83 

Gilgai 81 

Gledhill, J. M 15 

Glen Creek 56,83 

Glen Eden Ix)des 57 

,, Mine 57,58,90 

Glen Innes 58 

Ciranit'- — 

Klsmf)re 56 

Hillgrove 45 

Springs 58 

Rwkvale 54 

Torrington 42 



Greig, W. A 42, 70, 76 

Griffiths, P 55 

Grinding Mills 26 

Gulf Creek 54 

,. Lode 58 

,, Main Vein 56 

,, The 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, €6, 76, 92 

Gurlt, A 13,18 



Hadfield, R. A 9,15 

Hall's Grampians 56 

Harker, A. H 

Hawkins' Lode 

,, Quarry 48 

,, Section 

Heffernan's Lode 

Helms, A 

Herding Yard Creek 

Hess, F. H 14,15 

Highland Home 50,52,58,61,66 

Hillgrove 6, 7, 24, 25, 49, 63", 78 

85, 86, 90 

Hills, V. G 

Hogue's Creek 57 

Hopetoun Reefs 81 

Hubbert, H 

Hubnerite 

Hughes, R 

Lode 

Hurley, W 

Huttou's Lode 



Ideal Mine ... 
Iddings, J. P. 

llmenile 

Irvinebank ... 



18 

,58 

41 

58 

,49 

65 

58 

78 

GO 

,19 

,68 

,84 

,94 

47 

,58 

,82 

83 

21 

58 

58 

63 

59 



77 
40 
90 
27 



James, A 63 

Jerry's Creek 82 

Jigging Plant 24 

Jingellic 59, 90 



Kaolin 

Kelly Bros.' Ix>de .... 

Kelly and Dwyer 

Keys and Party 

Key's Scheelite Zone 

Kiaia Lode 

Kingsgate 

Kirk and Dwver 



42 
82 
83 
81 
83 
83 
90 
63 



Lankey Creek 

Leases, Hillgrove 

Lee's Gully 

Lindner, A 

T 

,, Lode 

Lithia mica 

Liversidg(\ A 

Tiode Creek 

., Hill Lodes 

Louis Wolfram Lode 



59, 



83 
95 
56 
59 
60 
59 
93 
78 
59 
59 
60 



INDEX. 



101 



PAGE. 

MacJeav, Upper 79 

Maddrick, H. G 79 

l.ode 81,83 

Magnetic Separator 27,28 

Magnet steel 17 

Manilla 50,81 

Margoschis, E. I* 50 

Marobee 83 

Massey and Brooks 68 

Matson, J 80 

McAllister's Lode 60 

McDonald's Veins 56,83 

ilcGeocirs Lode 60 

McLeod. C 60 

F. G. H 61 

Lode 62 

McMullen. J 54,60,61 

McNamara, E 85 

Metz 78 

Milo 61 

Minera 64 

Mingave, J. C. H 45,69,91 

Mole tableland 6,56 

Molevard Creek 65 

Molybdenite 90 

Monazite 91, 92 

Montreal 83 

Morrison, M 61,62,84,86 

Mount Allen 56 

,, Everard Mine 61 

,, Giflford 62,83 

,, Hope 56 

,, Strobo 61 

Tallabnng 61 

Mnlyan 62,84 

Musgrave, W 62 

Lode 62,83 

Myers and McMullen 77 

Nangeribone 62 

Narragal 84 

New Hope Mine 62 

Xewley, J 53 

Xewsome, E 57 

Xewsome's "Wolfram Lode 62 

Nicholas, T. H 71 

Nundlo 84 

Nymagee 62,63 

Oakv Creek 58 

Obefon 55,63,85 

Orange 88 

Origin. Torrington Deposits 33-40 

Output 96-98 

Panasqueria 33 

Payten and Henry's Lease 63 

Pegmatization 39 

I'eehvood 85 

Pepp's Flat 85 

Permo-Carbonifcrous 40 

Pittman. E. F 59 

Planet Mine 56 



Portugal 33 

Power, F. D 27 

Prices 98 

Pucko Lode 63 

Pulletop 51,52,59,60,63,67,90 



Queanbeyan 85 

Queensland 22 



Red Hill 52 

Reed's Flat 57 

Roberts' Lode 64 

Rock Glen 5 

Rockley 61,64,88 

Rockvale ... 26,52,54,55,56,60,62,63,64 
66, 68, 74, 76, 93 

,, Wolfram Company 54 

„ ,, Mine 64 

Rumsby's Lode 66, 92 



Sack's Mine 90 

Sampson and Cokehill 59,66 

Scheelite 21, 24, 78-87, 94-95 

Scrubby Gully 66 

Smaltine 90 

Smith, E. C. St 52,59,60 

„ H. B 56 

,, Lease 93 

,, Mica Lode 66 

Smyth's Claim 67 

Snow and Son 81 

Sofala 85 

Spurr, J. E 41 

Stalling, G. and F 67 

„ Lode 67 

,, and Party 53 

Stannif er 82 

Statistics 94-98 

Steinhardt, 0. J 18 

Stibnite 90 

Stolzite 89 

Stony Creek 64 

Strathbogie, N 58 

Sugarloaf Mount 67 



Tallabung 61 

Taylor's Cyclops Mine 86 

Temora 67 

Tinby, Lower 86 

Todd, D. S 61 

Toohey Lode 51 

„ M 67 

Topaz 43,93 

Top Lode 85 

Torrington 7,30,33-46,48,53,67,76 

77, 90, 92. 93 

,, Ore Company 68-70 

,, Wolfram Proprietary 74-76 



102 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Toscanose 46 

Townsend, J 79 

Trewhella, J 76 

Lode 76 

Tuena 86 

Tmigstate Lead 89 

Tuncrsten — 

Characters 10,11 

Discovery 5 

Metallurgy 11-18 

Mill 64 

Occurrence 30,31 

Ores 20-23 

Origin 33,46 

Output 6 

Permanence 47-49 

Properties 9-19 

Queensland 32,33 

Turner Bros 83 

Two-mile Creek 85 

Uralla 86 

Urambil 61 

Uren's Claim 76 

Usher's Lode 86 

Van Hise 39-40 

Vegetable Creek 91 



PAGE. 

Wade's Party 81 

Wagra 76 

AYalker, T. L 31 

Warren's Lode 76 

AVaukeroo 58, 76 

Welcome Stranger Mine 76 

Wellington Vale 56 

Weutworth Claim 77 

,, Proprietary 54,64 

Whittaker's Spur 81 

Williams and Stafford 61 

G. H 39 

Wilkinson, C. S 58 

Wilson 78,85 

Wilson's Downfall 53, 58, 59, 60, 77 

AVild Kate Mine 77 

Wolfram Camp 32,33 

Hill 72 

„ Output 96,97 

Steel 13 

W^olframite 20 

Wood's Reef 86 

Woolomin 86 

Yalgogrin 77 

Yankee Tin Lodes 66 

Yarraman 86 

Y'eoval 86 

Y'ulgilbar 63,77 



Sydney ; William Applegrate Gullick, Governmsat Printer.— 1912. 



TN Mow South WaliiL i. Geological 

122 Survey ^ AJa^^U^ %cn.*-><l oJ*% 

N5A32 Mineral resources 
no. 15 



Engineering 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



ENGIN STO'="^'^« 



MINERAL KESOIIRCES SI^RIES. 



No. I. Notes on Chromic Iron Ore, with a Register of New South Wales 
Localities, 1898. By J. E. Carne. 

No. 2. Notej on the Occurrence of Tungsten Ores in New South Wales, 1898. 
By J. E. Carne. 

No. 3. Notes on Gold Dredging, 1.898. By J. B. Jaque . 

No. 4. Notes on Bismuth On 8, 1898. By J. A. Watt. 

No. 5. Report on Wyalong Gv Id-field, 1899. By J. A. ^Vatt. 

No. 6. The Copper Mining In iustry, and the Distribution of Copper Ores in 
New South Wales, 1S99. Lv J. E. Carne. 2 -d Edition, 1908. 

No. 7. Mercury or Quicksilver in New South Wales, 1900. By J. E. Carne. 

No. 8. Report on the Hillgrove Gold-field, 1900. By E. C. Andrews. 

No, 9. Report on the Yalwal Gold-field, 1901. By E. C. Andrews. 

No. 10. Report on the Kiandra Lead, 19D1. By E. C. Andrews. 

No. 11. Molybdenum, 1906. By E. C. Andrews. 

No. 12. Report on Drake Gold and Copper-field, 1908. By E. C. Andrews. 

No. 13. Report on the Forbes-Parkes Gold-fields, 1911. By E. C. Andrews. 

No. 14. The Tin Mining Industry and the Distribution of Tin Ores in New South 
Wales, 1911. By J. E. Carne. 

No. 15. The Tungsten Mining Industry in New South Wales, 1911. By J. E. 
Carne. 



Mineral Resources of New South Wales, 1901. By E. F. Pittman. 



MEMOIRS (GEOLOGY). 



No. 1. Geology of the Vegetable Creek Tin-mining Field, 1887. By T. W. E. 
David. 

No. 2. Iron Ore Deposits of New South Wales, 1901. By J. B. Jaquet. 

No. 3. The Kerosene Shale Deposits of New South Whales, 1903. By J. E. Carne. 

No. 4. Geology of the Hunter River Coal Measures, 1907. By T. W. E. David. 

No. 5. Geology of the Broken Hill Lode and the Bairier Ranges Silver-field, 1894. 
By J. B. 3aquet. 

No. 6. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Western Coalfields, 1908. By 
J. E. Carne.